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List of sovereign states

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"List of nations" redirects here. For other country lists, see Lists of countries and territories. For other national lists, see Lists of nations. For non-sovereign dependencies, see Dependent territory.

This is a list of sovereign states, giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The list is divided into two parts. It is arranged alphabetically, and contains 203 entries, as of 2011:

  1. The internationally-recognized sovereign states section lists 193 states, consisting of all member states of the United Nations[1] and Vatican City.[2]
  2. The other states section lists 10 states which have de facto sovereignty or independence, but are not widely recognised diplomatically by other states.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the "criteria for inclusion" section below.

Contents:

Internationally-recognized sovereign states

Name in English, and the official, national, and other important languages of the state [Note 1] Information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 3]

A


Abkhazia → Other states

 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  • Persian: افغانستان – جمهوری اسلامی افغانستانAfgānestān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afgānestān
  • Pashto: افغانستان – د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریتAfghānistān – Afghānistān Islāmī Jumhūrīyat
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Albania – Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجزائر – الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبيةAl Jazā'ir – Al Jumhūrīyah al Jazā'irīyah ad Dīmuqrāţīyah ash Sha‘bīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
Widely recognized member of the UN. Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See.

 Angola – Republic of Angola Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Antigua and Barbuda Widely recognized member of the UN. Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 5][4]

 Argentina – Argentine Republic [Note 6]
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom.[5] Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 7][6]

 Armenia – Republic of Armenia
  • Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի ՀանրապետությունHayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Armenia is not recognised by one UN member: Pakistan.


 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:

 Austria – Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer).

 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan – Azərbaycan Respublikası
Widely recognized member of the UN. Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 5] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established (see Other states).

B


 Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Arabic: البحرين – مملكة البحرينAl Baḩrayn – Mamlakat al Baḩrayn
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশBāṁlādesh – Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṁlādesh
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Barbados Widely recognized member of the UN. Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Belarus – Republic of Belarus
  • Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка БеларусьBielarus' – Respublika Bielarus'
  • Russian: Беларусь  – Республика БеларусьBelarus' – Respublika Belarus'
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.

 Belize Widely recognized member of the UN. Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Benin – Republic of Benin [Note 8]
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ – འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་Druk Yul – Druk Gyalkhap
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
  • Guaraní: Volívia – Tetã Volívia
  • Quechua: Buliwya – Buliwya Mama Llaqta[8]
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnian: Bosna i Hercegovina
  • Serbian: Босна и ХерцеговинаBosna i Hercegovina
  • Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.[Note 9]

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.

 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
  • Malay: Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam
  • Jawi: برني دارالسلام
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 10]

 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian: България – Република БългарияBǎlgarija – Republika Bǎlgarija
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Burkina Faso [Note 11] Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [Note 12][9]
  • Burmese: မန္မာ – ပည္ေထာင္စုမန္မာနုိင္ငံေတာ္Myanma – Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

C


 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Khmer: កម្ពុជា – ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជាKâmpŭchéa – Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Canada [Note 13] Widely recognized member of the UN. Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.

 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Central African Republic
  • French: République centrafricaine
  • Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Chad – Republic of Chad
  • French: Tchad – République du Tchad
  • Arabic: تشاد – جمهوريّة تشادTshād – Jumhūrīyat Tshād
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
Widely recognized member of the UN. Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 7]

 China – People's Republic of China[Note 14]
  • Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国Zhōnggúo – Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
  • Mongolian: Mongolian-PRC2.svg [Note 15]Bügüde Nayiramdaqu Dumdadu Arad Ulus
  • Tibetan: རྒྱ་ནག – ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱི་མཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ།Zhunghua Mimang Jitun Gyalkab
  • Kazakh: جۇڭگو – جۇڭحۋا حالىق رەسپۋبليكاسىJuñgo – Juñxwa Xalıq Respwblïkası
  • Korean: 중국 – 중화인민공화국Jungguk – Junghwa Inmin Gonghwaguk
  • Uyghur: جۇڭگو – جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتJunggo – Jungxua Xelq Jumhuriyiti
  • Zhuang: Cunghgoz – Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz[10][11]
Widely recognized member of the UN. The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 5] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

It also claims:

Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18] As of 2011 the PRC was not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise the ROC.[Note 19]


China, Republic of (Taiwan) → Other states

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Colombia's department of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina is the subject of a territorial dispute with Nicaragua.[5]

 Comoros – Union of the Comoros
  • Comorian: Komori – Udzima wa Komori
  • French: Comores – Union des Comores
  • Arabic: جمهورية القمر المتحدة – جزر القمرJuzur al Qamar – Jumhūrīyat al Qamar al Muttaḩidah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, currently part of France, as a fourth.[Note 20][12] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over the Glorioso Islands and Banc du Geyser.[5]

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa) [Note 21]
  • French: République démocratique du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville)
  • French: République du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Croatia – Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
  • Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή ΔημοκρατίαKýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía
  • Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. Cyprus is not recognised by one UN member: Turkey.[Note 22]

 Czech Republic [Note 23]
  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

D


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

The Kingdom of Denmark also includes two self-governing countries.[Note 24]


 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
  • French: Djibouti – République de Djibouti
  • Arabic: جيبوتي –جمهورية جيبوتيJībūtī – Jumhūrīyat Jībūtī
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Dominican Republic Widely recognized member of the UN.

E


 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [Note 25]
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Arabic: مصر –جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّةMişr – Jumhūrīyat Mişr al ‘Arabīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French: Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée équatoriale
  • Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial – República da Guiné Equatorial
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Eritrea – State of Eritrea
  • Tigrinya: ኤርትራ – ሃግሬ ኤርትራIertra – Hagere Iertra
  • Arabic: إريتريا –دولة إرترياIrītrīyā – Dawlat Irītrīyā
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክItyop'iya – Ityop'iya Fe̱de̱ralawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripe̱blik
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.

F


 Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Hindustani: फ़िजी / فیجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فیجی رپبلکFijī – Fijī dvip samooh ganarajya [13]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 5][14][15]

 Finland – Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 France – French Republic
  • French: France – République française
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France.

The French Republic also includes the overseas territories of:

Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[5]


G


 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République gabonaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Georgia
  • Georgian: საქართველოSak’art’velo
Widely recognized member of the UN. Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 5] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed (see Other states).

 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).

 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Greece – Hellenic Republic
  • Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική ΔημοκρατίαElláda – Ellinikí Dimokratía
  • Katharevousa: Ελλάς – Ελληνική ΔημοκρατίαEllás – Ellinikí Dimokratía
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[16]

 Grenada Widely recognized member of the UN. Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Widely recognized member of the UN. A substantial part of Guyana, from the west of the Essequibo River, is claimed by Venezuela.

H


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti Widely recognized member of the UN. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.[5]

Holy See → Vatican City

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Hungary – Republic of Hungary
  • Hungarian: Magyarország – Magyar Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

I


 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
  • Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 India – Republic of India
  • Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhāratīya Gaṇarājya
  • English: India – Republic of India
  • Assamese: ভাৰত – ভাৰত গণৰাজ্যBhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Bengali: ভারত – ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্রBhārôt – Bhārôtīyô Prôjātôntrô
  • Bhojpuri: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Gujarati: ભારત – ભારતીય ગણરાજ્યBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrājya
  • Kannada: ಭಾರತ – ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
  • Kashmiri: ہِندوستانHindustān
  • Konkani: भारत – भारोत गोणराजBhārot – Bhārot Goṇrāj
  • Maithili: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Malayalam: ഭാരതം – ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യംBhārataṃ – Bhārata Gaṇarājyaṃ
  • Marathi: भारत – भारतीय प्रजासत्ताकBhārat – Bhāratīy Pradzāsattāk
  • Meitei: ভারত – ভারত গণরাজ্যBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
  • Nepali: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Oriya: ଭାରତ – ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯBhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Punjabi: ਭਾਰਤ – ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇtãtar
  • Sanskrit: भारतम् – भारत गणराज्यम्Bhārat – Bhāratam Gaṇarājyam
  • Sindhi: भारत गणराज्य, هندستانڀارت – भारत, ڀارتBhāratu – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Tamil: இந்தியா – இந்தியக் குடியரசுIntiyā – Intiyak Kuṭiyaracu
  • Telugu: భారత్ – భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యముBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇataṃtra Rājyamu
  • Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت – جمہوریہ بھارتBhārat – Jumhūrīyâ-e Bhārat [17]
Widely recognized member of the UN. India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[5] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18]

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia Widely recognized member of the UN. Indonesia has 3 provinces with official special autonomy status: Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 5]

 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Persian: ایران – جمهوری اسلامی ایرانĪrān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Iraq – Republic of Iraq
  • Arabic: العراق – جمهورية العراقAl ʿIrāq – Jumhūrīyat al ʿIrāq
  • Kurdish: عێراق – كۆماری عێراقʿÎraq – Komara Îraqę [18]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Iraq is a federation[Note 20][19] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 5]

 Ireland [Note 27] Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Israel – State of Israel
  • Hebrew: ישראל – מדינת ישראלYisra'el – Medinat Yisra'el
  • Arabic: إسرائيل – دولة إسرائيلIsrā'īl – Dawlat Isrā'īl
Widely recognized member of the UN. Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights[20] and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel.[5] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still arguably considered the occupying power under international law.[21][22][23][24][25] As of 2011 Israel was not recognised as a state by 20 members of the UN.[Note 28]

 Italy – Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 5]

Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire

J


 Jamaica Widely recognized member of the UN. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Japan
  • Japanese: 日本 – 日本国Nihon/Nippon – Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku[Note 29]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Japan disputes Russian administration of the Kuril Islands.

 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: الأردن – المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّةAl Urdun – Al Mamlakah al Urdunīyah al Hāshimīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

K


 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан РеспубликасыQazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy
  • Russian: Казахстан – Республика КазахстанKazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberiki Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 조선 – 조선민주주의인민공화국 → Chosŏn – Chosŏn-minjujuŭi-inmin-konghwaguk
Widely recognised member of the UN.

North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 30][26]


 Korea, South – Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 한국 – 대한민국 → Han’guk – Taehan Min’guk
Widely recognised member of the UN. South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 5][27]

South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 30]


Kosovo → Other states

 Kuwait – State of Kuwait
  • Arabic: الكويت – دولة الكويتAl Kuwayt – Dawlat al Kuwayt
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
  • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз РеспубликасыKyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Respublikasy
  • Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская РеспубликаKyrgyzstan – Kyrgyzskaya Respublika
Widely recognized member of the UN.

L


 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວLao – Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Latvia – Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
  • Arabic: لبنان –الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّةLubnān – Al Jumhūrīyah al Lubnānīyah
  • French: Liban – République libanaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • Arabic: ليبيا – الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى → Lībyā – Al Jamāhīrīyah al ‘Arabīyah al Lībīyah ash Sha‘bīyah al Ishtirākīyah al ‘Uz̧má
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

M


 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia
  • Macedonian: Македонија – Република МакедонијаMakedonija – Republika e Maqedonisë
Widely recognized member of the UN. Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
Widely recognized member of the UN. Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.[5]

 Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Dziko la Malaŵi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Malaysia Widely recognized member of the UN. Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 10]

 Maldives – Republic of Maldives
  • Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ – ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާDhivehi Raajje – Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mali – Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Malta – Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aelōn̄ in M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ[29]
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claim the U.S. territory of Wake Island.[5]

 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic: موريتانيا – الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانيةMūrītāniyā – Al Jumhūrīyah al Islāmīyah al Mūrītānīyah
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius Widely recognized member of the UN. Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 5] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[5]

 Mexico – United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.

 Micronesia, Federated States of
  • English: Federated States of Micronesia
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.

 Moldova – Republic of Moldova Widely recognized member of the UN. Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state (see Other states).

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco – Principato di Monaco
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mongolia
  • Mongolian: Монгол улсMongol uls
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Montenegro Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
  • Arabic: المغرب – المملكة المغربيةAl Maghrib – Al Mamlakah al Maghribīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Morocco claims sovereignty over the Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas.[5]

 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Myanmar → Burma

N


Nagorno-Karabakh → Other states

 Namibia – Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Widely recognized member of the UN.

   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • Nepali: नेपाल – संघिय लोकतन्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपालNepāl – Saṁghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Papiamentu: Hulanda (or Ulanda) – Reino di Hulanda
  • English: Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Frisian: Nederlân – Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and her ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of the country the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Saint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to the Netherlands proper.


 New Zealand Widely recognized member of the UN. New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] and has responsibilities for two freely associated states:

Both of the above have established independent foreign relations with a number of states.[30][31][32]

New Zealand also has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government claims sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States.[33] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[34]


 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 5]

 Niger – Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
  • Hausa: Nijar – Jamhuriyar Nijar
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Hausa: Nijeriya – Jamhuriyar Taraiyar Nijeriya
  • Igbo: Naigeria – Njíkötá Óchíchìiwù Naíjíríà
  • Yoruba: Naìjírìà – Àpapọ̀ Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.

Northern Cyprus → Other states

North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
  • Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge
  • Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg
Widely recognized member of the UN. Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty.

Bouvet Island is a dependent territory of Norway. Norway also claims Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land as dependent territories of Norway, as part of the Norwegian Antarctic Territory.[Note 7]


O


 Oman – Sultanate of Oman
  • Arabic: عُمان – سلطنة عُمانʿUmān – Salţanat ʿUmān
Widely recognized member of the UN.

P


 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: پَاکِسْتَان – جَمْهُورْيَة إِسْلامِی پَاکِسْتَانPākistān – Jamhūryat Islāmī Pākistān
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Punjabi: پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان
  • Persian: پاکستان - جمهوری اسلامی پاکستان
Widely recognized member of the UN. Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[35][36] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[37][38] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 18]

 Palau – Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

Palestine → Other states

 Panama – Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea Widely recognized member of the UN. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 5]

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguay – Tetã Paraguái
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Persia → Iran

 Peru – Republic of Peru Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino and Tagalog: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas – República de Filipinas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Philippines contains 1 autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[Note 5] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 10] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah, which as of 2011 was part of Malaysia.[5]

 Poland – Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 5] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[5]

Pridnestrovie → Other states, Transnistria

Q


 Qatar – State of Qatar
  • Arabic: قطر – دولة قطرQaţar – Dawlat Qaţar
Widely recognized member of the UN.

R


 Romania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Russia – Russian Federation
  • Russian: Россия – Российская ФедерацияRossiya – Rossiyskaya Federaciya
Widely recognized member of the UN. Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (oblasts, republics, autonomous okrugs, krays, and federal cities). Several of the federal subjects are republics acting as ethnic autonomies.[Note 5] Sovereignty over the Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.

 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
  • Kinyarwanda: Rwanda – Republika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

S


Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Other states

 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] and is a federation [Note 20] of 14 parishes.

 Saint Lucia Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Malo Sa‘oloto Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
Widely recognized member of the UN. São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 5]

 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic: السعودية – المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّةAs Su‘ūdīyah – Al Mamlakah al ‘Arabīyah as Su‘ūdīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Serbia – Republic of Serbia
  • Serbian: Србија – Република СрбијаSrbija – Republika Srbija
Widely recognized member of the UN. Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 5] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo (see Other states).

 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Seselwa: Sesel – Repiblik Sesel
Widely recognized member of the UN. Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island.[5]

 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国Xinjiapo – Xinjiapo Gongheguo
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசுChiṅkappūr – Chiṅkappūr Kuṭiyarachu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Slovakia – Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
  • Hungarian: Szlovákia – Szlovák Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia – Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

 Solomon Islands Widely recognized member of the UN. The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

 Somalia – Somali Republic
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: الصومال – جمهورية الصومالAş Şūmāl – Jumhūrīyat aş Şūmāl
Widely recognized member of the UN. Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim which the TFG does not recognise),[41][Need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state (see Other states).

Somaliland → Other states

 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – iRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Swazi: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Xhosa: uMzantsi Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
Widely recognized member of the UN.

South Korea → Korea, Republic of

South Ossetia → Other states

 Spain – Kingdom of Spain Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 5] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain disputes British sovereignty over Gibraltar.[5]

 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා – ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජයShrī Laṁkā – Shrī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசுIlaṅkai – Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu
Widely recognized member of the UN. Formerly known as Ceylon.

 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
  • Arabic: السودان – جمهورية السودانAs Sūdān – Jumhūrīyat as Sūdān
  • English: Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Sudan is a federation of 25 states, 10 of which form the autonomous region of Southern Sudan, which is scheduled to become independent in July 2011.[Note 5]

 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swazi: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2]

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Helvetia – Confoederatio Helvetica
Widely recognized member of the UN. Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.

 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: سورية – الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّةSūrīyah – Al Jumhūrīyah al ‘Arabīyah as Sūrīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Israel occupies the Golan Heights.[20] Syria disputed[clarification needed] the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.[5]

T


Taiwan (Republic of China) → Other states

 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
  • Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии ТоҷикистонTojikiston – Jumhurii Tojikiston
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 5]

 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English: Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 5]

 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทยPrathet Thai – Ratcha Anachak Thai
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Timor-Leste → East Timor

 Togo – Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République togolaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Transnistria → Other states

 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Widely recognized member of the UN. Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 5]

 Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia
  • Arabic: تونس – الجمهورية التونسيةTūnis – Al Jumhūrīyah at Tūnisīyah
  • French: Tunisie – République tunisienne
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Turkmenistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Tuvalu Widely recognized member of the UN. Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 4]

U


 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Ukraine Widely recognized member of the UN. Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 5]

 United Arab Emirates
  • Arabic: اَلإمَارَات – اَلإمَارَات اَلْعَرَبِيَّة اَلْمُتَّحِدَةAl Imārāt – Al Imārāt al ‘Arabīyah al Muttaḩidah
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.

 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mòire agus Èireann a Tuath
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon[43]
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[Note 2] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 4] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


 United States – United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
  • French: États-Unis – États-Unis d'Amérique
  • Hawaiian: ʻAmelika Hui – ‘Amelika Huipū‘ia[44]
  • Spanish: Estados Unidos – Estados Unidos de América
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island (disputed by Haiti), and Wake Island (disputed by the Marshall Islands). According to some sources, the United States also claims Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank as territories.[5]


 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон РеспубликасиO'zbekiston – O‘zbekiston Respublikasi [45]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 5]

V


 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
  • French: Cité du Vatican – État de la Cité du Vatican[10]
Widely recognized sovereign state. Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 178 states. The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State".[2] The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy and in many other countries (Apostolic Nunciatures).

 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Widely recognized member of the UN. Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.

 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 17] and Spratly Islands.[Note 10]

W


X


Y


 Yemen – Republic of Yemen
  • Arabic: اليمن – الجمهوريّة اليمنيةAl Yaman – Al Jumhūrīyah al Yamanīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Z


 Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • Bemba: Zambia – Ichalo Ca Zambia
  • Kaonde: Zambia – Kyalo Kya Zambia
  • Lozi: Zambia – Naha Zambia Ye Ipusa
  • Chewa: Zambia – Dziko La Zambia
  • Tonga: Zambia – Cisi Ca Zambia[10]
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Ndebele: Zimbabwe – iRiphabliki ye Zimbabwe
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Other states

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This annex lists states seeking official statehood and wider recognition. They have control over (part of or all of) their claimed territory, but due to disputes over their legitimacy, do not have normal diplomatic relations with many states.[Note 32] None of the states in this annex list are UN member states.

Name in English and the official languages of the state Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia
  • Abkhaz: Аҧсны – Аҧсны АҳәынҭқарраApsny – Apsny Akheyntkarra
  • Russian: Aбхазия – Республика АбхазияAbhaziya – Respublika Abhaziya
A de facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[46][47] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo
  • Albanian: Kosova – Republika e Kosovës
  • Serbian: Косово / Kosovo – Република Косово / Republika Kosovo
A de facto independent state that is recognised by 75 UN member states and by the Republic of China. Claimed in whole by Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.

 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի ՀանրապետությունLeṙnalin Ġarabaġ – Leṙnayin Ġarabaġi Hanrapetut‘yun
A de facto independent state,[48][49] recognised only by Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[50]

 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
A de facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. It has participated as an observer state of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under the name "Turkish Cypriot State" since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[51]

 Palestine
  • Arabic: فلسطينFilastīn
Palestine,[52][53][54] categorised under "other entities",[2] has observer status at United Nations General Assembly and maintains a permanent observer mission at the UN Headquarters. The unilaterally-declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from over 110 countries; the exact number is unknown due to the equivocal nature of many declarations of acknowledgment.[55][56][57] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, nor effective control on the territory which it proclaimed. In foreign relations, the State of Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction over parts of the West Bank, while the Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas.

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطيةAl-Jumhūrīya al-`Arabīya as-Sahrāwīya ad-Dīmuqrātīya
  • Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
State recognised by 81 other states[citation needed]. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of the Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: أرض الصومال – جمهورية أرض الصومالArd as-Sūmāl – Jumhūrīyat Ard as-Sūmāl
A de facto independent state,[58][59][60] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[61]

 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар ИрыстонKhussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная ОсетияYuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya
A de facto independent state,[62] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[46]

 Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 14] A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 10] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[63] The Republic of China is currently recognised by 23 states including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 16] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei".

 Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская РеспубликаPridnestrovye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська РеспублікаPridnistrov'ya – Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika
  • Romanian: Транснистрия – Република Молдовеняскэ НистрянэTransnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[64]

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list are included all states which either:

  • (a) have declared independence and are often regarded as having control over a permanently populated territory, or
  • (b) are recognized as a sovereign state by at least one other sovereign state

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 203 entities:[65][Note 32]

  • 200 states recognized by at least one UN member state
  • Two states which control a permanently populated territory and are recognized only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state which controls a permanently populated territory and is not recognized by any other state: Somaliland

See also

Notes

  1. The names of the items in the list are given in English, as well as in the official, national, major minority, and historically important languages of the state. Where applicable, names in other languages are included in their original script, along with a transliteration in Roman characters. Except where mentioned, the source for the names in their official languages is the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN, retrieved 24 February 2011), which uses romanisation systems approved by the United Nations. The sources for flags are the main articles on these states. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. For a gallery of flags, see Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU as of 2011 had 27 member states.[7]
  3. Information is included on:
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  6. The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
  8. Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  9. For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  11. Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  12. Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  13. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  14. 14.0 14.1 The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  15. Rendered in unicode as ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
  16. 16.0 16.1 In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  17. 17.0 17.1 The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes);
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. As of 2011 Kashmir was divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  19. See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  21. Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  22. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute.
  23. A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  24. For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.
  25. The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  26. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  27. The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  28. See Foreign relations of Israel and Recognition of Israel.
  29. See Names of Japan for more detail.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  31. Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
  32. 32.0 32.1 The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, who either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
  33. Romanization in Pinyin.

References

  1. "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  3. Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006), retrieved 28 February 2011)
  4. Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act" (PDF). Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 More information on territorial disputes can be found at the List of territorial disputes and the main articles.
  6. Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. p. 43. ISBN 9781428922327.  "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
  7. Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. Source for the Aymara, Guaraní, and Quechua is the Consulate General of Brazil in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. "Datos de Bolivia". Government of Brazil. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  9. "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Source for names in regional and minority languages is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "gmfa" defined multiple times with different content
  11. Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "China". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  12. Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  13. Source for the Hindustani, which uses both the Hindi and Urdu script, is Geonames. "Fiji". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  14. "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10. [dead link]
  15. Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  16. Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  17. Source for the names in recognised regional and national languages is Geonames. "India". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  18. Source for the official name in Kurdish is the Kurdistan Regional Government. "Official website". Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  19. Source: Iraqi constitution
  20. 20.0 20.1 Occupied territory:
  21. Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  22. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  23. "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  24. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  25. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  26. "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  27. Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  28. Source for the Jawi script and Tamil and Chinese romanisations is Geonames. "Malaysia". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  29. Source for the formal native version is Geonames. "Marshall Islands". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  30. Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  31. China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  32. Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  33. Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  34. Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  35. Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  36. Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). 
  37. Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780275969349. 
  38. Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9788126110919. 
  39. Source for the Ayamara and Quechua is Geonames. "Peru". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  40. Hungarian foreign ministry information sheet
  41. Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812242300.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
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  43. Source for the Irish, Scottish, and Welsh is Geonames. "United Kingdom". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  44. Source for the Hawaiian is Geonames. "United States". Fröhlich, Werner. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  45. Source for the Cyrillic is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography)
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  47. Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
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  51. See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
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  53. McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994), "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine", Seattle University Law Review (Seattle University) 18 (93): 97, retrieved 2011-04-17:  "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory"
  54. McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009), "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute", Human Rights Brief (Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law) 25, retrieved 2011-04-17:  "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
  55. See Crawford, James (1999). "Israel (1948–1949) and Paletine (1998–1999): Two Studies in the Creation of States", in Goodwin-Gil G.S. and S. Talmon, The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, pp. 110–115.
  56. Kurz, Anat N. (2005) Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalization of a popular Struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press ISBN 1-84519-032-7, ISBN 978-1-84519-032-3 p. 123.
  57. Boyle, Francis A., "Palestine, Palestinians and International Law", Clarity Press, September 1, 2009, ISBN 093286337X, page 19.
  58. International Crisis Group (23 May 2006), "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership" (PDF), Africa Report (110): 10–13, retrieved 2011-04-19 
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  62. Jansen, Dinah (2009), "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm" (PDF), Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242, ISBN 9781896440613 
  63. "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 
  64. 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  65. The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography

af:Lys van lande als:Liste unabhängiger Staaten ang:Land þǣre worulde ab:Атәылақәеи атерриториақәеи алфавиттә рыхьӡынҵа ar:ملحق:قائمة الدول an:Estatos d'o mundo arc:ܡܟܬܒܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܪܘܬܐ roa-rup:Vãsãliili di pi Terra (2) frp:Payis (L) as:দেশৰ তালিকা ast:Llista de países gn:Opaite tetã yvygua az:Dünya ölkələrinin siyahısı bn:সার্বভৌম রাষ্ট্রসমূহের তালিকা bjn:Daptar nagara di dunia zh-min-nan:Kok-ka lia̍t-toaⁿ map-bms:Daftar negara be:Краіны паводле алфавіту be-x-old:Сьпіс краінаў і тэрыторыяў па альфабэце bcl:Lista nin mga nacion bar:Listn vo de Staatn bo:རྒྱལ་ཁབ་དག་གི་མིང་། bs:Države svijeta br:Roll riezoù ar Bed bg:Списък на страните ca:Llista d'estats independents i territoris dependents ceb:Talaan sa mga nasod cs:Seznam států světa cbk-zam:Anexo:Maga Nacion del Mundo cy:Gwledydd y byd da:Verdens lande pdc:Lischt vun Lenner de:Liste der Staaten der Erde nv:Kéyah Daʼnaaznilígíí dsb:Lisćina krajow dz:List of countries et:Maailma riikide loend el:Κατάλογος χωρών es:Anexo:Países del mundo eo:Listo de sendependaj ŝtatoj eu:Estatu burujabeen eta hiriburuen zerrenda fa:فهرست کشورهای جهان بر اساس الفبای فارسی fo:Heimsins lond fr:Liste des pays du monde fy:List fan lannen en gebieten ff:Ngaluuji leydi fur:Liste di Stâts dal mont ga:Liosta tíortha gv:Rolley çheeraghyn y theihll gag:Devletlär tablițası gd:Dùthchannan an t-Saoghail gl:Lista de países got:𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌾𐌰/Reikja xal:Орн Нутгин буулһавр ko:나라 목록 ha:Ƙasashen Duniya haw:Papa o nā ʻāina hy:Լիիշխան պետությունների ցանկ hi:विश्व के सभी देश hsb:Lisćina krajow hr:Popis država io:Listo di nedependanta stati ig:Ndetu obodo ilo:Listaan dagiti pagilian ti lubong bpy:দেশর নাঙর তালিকাহান id:Daftar negara berdaulat ia:Lista de statos e entitates soveran ie:Liste del landes del munde os:Бæстæты номхыгъд is:Listi yfir fullvalda ríki it:Stati del mondo he:מדינות לפי שם jv:Dhaptar negara kl:Silarsuarmi nunat kn:ಸಾರ್ವಭೌಮ ದೇಶಗಳ ಪಟ್ಟಿ pam:Paktura da reng Bangsa ka:ქვეყნების სია kk:Ел тізімі kw:Gwlasow ky:Дүйнө өлкөлөрү sw:Madola kg:Nsi ht:Lis peyi ku:Lîsteya dewletên cîhanê lad:Lista de payizes la:Nationes mundi ltg:Pasauļa vaļsteibu saroksts lv:Suverēno valstu uzskaitījums lb:Lëscht vun de Länner vun der Welt lt:Sąrašas:Šalių sąrašas ln:Molɔngɔ́ ya bisé ya mokili jbo:gugde liste hu:Országok és területek listája mk:Список на држави во светот mg:Lisitry ny firenena mt:Pajjiżi tad-dinja mr:जगातील देशांची यादी ms:Senarai negara berdaulat mwl:Lhista de países mn:Улс орнуудын жагсаалт nah:Tlācatiyān (nci) na:Eb nl:Lijst van landen in 2011 nds-nl:Lieste van lanen van de wereld ne:राष्ट्र ja:国の一覧 nap:Lista d''e Paise d''o munno ce:Могlам, элпнашца долу мехкаш frr:Lönje pih:Lyst o' kuntrii no:Liste over stater nn:Verdas land nrm:Liste des pays du monde oc:Lista dels païses del Mond or:ଦେଶ om:List of countries uz:Davlatlar ro‘yxati pa:ਦੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਦੀ ਸੂਚੀ pag:Listaan na saray bansa pnb:دیشاں دی سوچی ps:نور هېوادونه km:រាយឈ្មោះប្រទេស tpi:Ol kantri nds:Land#Länner pl:Państwa świata pt:Anexo:Lista de países kaa:Ma'mleketler dizimi crh:Memleketler cedveli ty:List of countries ro:Lista statelor lumii rmy:Patrinipen le themengo rm:Glista dals stadis independents qu:Wikipidiya:Unanchakunap Plantillankuna rue:Список країн світа ru:Алфавитный список стран и территорий sah:Дойдулар тиһиктэрэ sa:देश sc:Istados de su mundu sco:Leet o kintras stq:Lounde scn:Lista dî Paisi dû Munnu si:ස්වෛරී රාජ්‍ය ලැයිස්තුව simple:List of countries ss:Emave emhlaba sk:Zoznam štátov sl:Seznam suverenih držav so:Dalalka ckb:لیستی دەوڵەتانی جیھان srn:Rei fu kondre sr:Списак држава sh:Spisak država su:Daptar nagara fi:Luettelo itsenäisistä valtioista sv:Världsgeografi#Lista över länder tl:Talaan ng mga bansa ta:உலக நாடுகளின் பட்டியல் tt:Däwlätlär isemlege te:దేశాల జాబితా tet:Nasaun sira-nia Naran no Kapitál sira th:รายชื่อประเทศ ดินแดน และเมืองหลวง tg:Номгӯи давлатҳо chr:ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏙᎪᏪᎸ tr:Ülkeler listesi tk:Döwlet udm:Дуннеысь кунъёс bug:Daftar ᨓᨊᨘᨕ ᨓᨊᨘᨕ ᨑᨗ ᨒᨗᨊᨚ uk:Список країн ur:فہرست ممالک ug:Hazirkhi Wakhalar vec:Stati del mondo vi:Danh sách quốc gia fiu-vro:Maailma maaq wo:Limu réewi àdduna bi wuu:世界地理索引 yi:רשימה:לענדער פון דער וועלט yo:Àkójọ àwọn orílẹ̀-èdè zh-yue:國家同地區一覽 diq:Dewleti bat-smg:Šaliū sārašos zh:世界地理索引

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