From World Afropedia

Luanda

Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Luanda (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 8°50′18″S 13°14′04″E / 8.83833°S 13.23444°E / -8.83833; 13.23444{{#coordinates:8|50|18|S|13|14|04|E|region:AO_type:city |primary |name= }}

Luanda
formerly spelled Loanda
Luanda's waterfront
Luanda's waterfront
Luanda is located in Angola
Luanda
Luanda
Location of Luanda in Angola

Coordinates: 8°50′18″S 13°14′4″E / 8.83833°S 13.23444°E / -8.83833; 13.23444{{#coordinates:8|50|18|S|13|14|4|E|type:city(4799432)_region:AO | |name=

}}
Country  Angola
Province Luanda Province
Founded 1575
Elevation 6 m (20 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Total 4,799,432

Luanda (formerly spelled Loanda) is the capital and largest city of Angola. Located on Angola's coast with the Atlantic Ocean, Luanda is both Angola's chief seaport and administrative center and has a population of at least 5 million (2008).[1] It is also the capital city of Luanda Province. The city is currently undergoing a major reconstruction, with many large developments taking place that will alter the cityscape significantly.

History

Portuguese rule

Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda on 25 January 1576 as "São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda", with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. In 1618 the Portuguese built the fortress called Fortaleza São Pedro da Barra, subsequently building two more: Fortaleza de São Miguel (1634) and Forte de São Francisco do Penedo (1765-6). Of these, the Fortaleza de São Miguel is the best preserved.[2]

Luanda was Portuguese Angola's administrative centre from 1627, except during the Dutch rule of Luanda, from 1640 to 1648, as Fort Aardenburgh. The city served as the centre of a large slave trade to Brazil from c.1550 to 1836. The slave trade was conducted mostly with the Portuguese colony of Brazil; Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the ports of Luanda and Benguela. This slave trade also involved local black merchants and warriors who profited from the trade.[3]

In the 17th century, the Imbangala became the main rivals of the Mbundu in supplying slaves to the Luanda market. In the 1750s between 5,000 to 10,000 slaves were annually sold.[4] By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact like a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong degree of Brazilian influence was noted in Luanda until the Independence of Brazil in 1822. In the 19th century, still under Portuguese rule, Luanda experienced a major economic revolution. The slave trade was abolished in 1836, and in 1844 Angola's ports were opened to foreign shipping. By 1850, Luanda was one of the greatest and most developed Portuguese cities in the vast Portuguese Empire outside Mainland Portugal, full of trading companies, exporting (together with Benguela) palm and peanut oil, wax, copal, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and cocoa, among many other products. Maize, tobacco, dried meat and cassava flour also began to be produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born by this time.[citation needed]

In 1889 Governor Brito Capelo opened the gates of an aqueduct which supplied the city with water, a formerly scarce resource, laying the foundation for major growth. Like most of Portuguese Angola, the cosmopolitan[5] city of Luanda was not affected by the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974); economic growth and development in the entire region reached record highs during this period. In 1972 a report called Luanda the "Paris of Africa". Throughout Portugal's Estado Novo period, Luanda grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a wealthy cosmopolitan major city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans (26.3%) and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants.[6][7]

Independence from Portugal

By the time of Angolan independence in 1975, Luanda was a modern city and the majority of the city's population, including military personnel, was of white Portuguese origin. After the Carnation Revolution in April 1974, with the advent of independence and the start of the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), most of the Portuguese left as refugees,[8] principally for Portugal, with many travelling overland to South Africa. There was an immediate crisis, because the local African population lacked the skills and knowledge needed to run the city and maintain its well-developed infrastructure. The large numbers of skilled technicians among the force of Cuban soldiers sent in to support the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) government in the Angolan Civil War were able to make a valuable contribution to restoring and maintaining basic services in the city. However, in the following years, slums called musseques stretched for miles beyond Luanda's former city limits, as a result of the decades-long civil war, and because of the rise of deep social inequalities due to large-scale migration of civil war refugees from other Angolan regions. For decades, Luanda's facilities were not adequately expanded to handle this massive increase in the city's population. After 2002, with the end of the civil war and high economic growth rates fuelled by the wealth provided by the increasing oil and diamond production, major reconstruction started.[citation needed]

Geography and climate

Luanda is divided into two parts, the Baixa de Luanda (lower Luanda, the old city) and the Cidade Alta (upper city or the new part). The Baixa de Luanda is situated next to the port, and has narrow streets and old colonial buildings.[citation needed]

Town subdivisions

Luanda is divided into 9 districts, the so-called municipios:

A completely new satellite city, called Luanda Sul has been built. In Camama, Zango and Kilamba Kiaxi more high-rise developments are to be built. The capital Luanda is growing constantly - and in addition, increasingly beyond the official city limits and even provincial boundaries.

Luanda is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. It is also the location of most of Angola's educational institutions, including the private Catholic University of Angola and the public University of Agostinho Neto. It is also the home of the colonial Governor's Palace and the Estádio da Cidadela (the "Citadel Stadium"), Angola's main stadium, with a total seating capacity of 60,000.[citation needed]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Luanda features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). The climate is hot and humid but surprisingly dry, owing to the cool Benguela Current, which prevents moisture from easily condensing into rain. Frequent fog prevents temperatures from falling at night even during the completely dry months from June to October. Luanda has an annual rainfall of 323 millimetres (12.7 in), but the variability is among the highest in the world, with a co-efficient of variation above 40 percent.[9] The short rainy season in March and April depends on a northerly counter current bringing moisture to the city: it has been shown clearly that weakness in the Benguela current can increase rainfall about sixfold compared with years when that current is strong.[citation needed]

Climate data for Luanda
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
36
(97)
32
(90)
29
(84)
28
(82)
29
(84)
32
(90)
37
(99)
34
(93)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
29
(84)
28
(82)
25
(77)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
20
(68)
18
(64)
18
(64)
19
(66)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
15
(59)
14
(57)
14
(57)
17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
14
(57)
Precipitation mm (inches) 25
(0.98)
36
(1.42)
76
(2.99)
117
(4.61)
13
(0.51)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
5
(0.2)
28
(1.1)
20
(0.79)
323
(12.72)
Source: BBC Weather [10]

Demographics

Population of Luanda, 1750-2007

The inhabitants of Luanda are primarily members of African ethnic groups, mainly Ambundu, the Ovimbundu and the Bakongo. The official and the most widely used language is Portuguese, although several Bantu- languages are also used, chiefly Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo. There is a minority population of European origin, especially Portuguese, as well as Brazilians and other Latin Americans. Over the last decades, a significant Chinese community has formed, as has a (much smaller) Vietnamese community. There is a sprinkling of immigrants from other African countries as well as a small expatriate South African community.

The population of Luanda has exploded in recent years, due in large part to war-time migration to the city, which is safe compared to the rest of the country.[11] However, Luanda has recently seen an increase in violent crime, particularly in the shanty towns that surround the colonial urban core.[12]

Economy

Luanda

Around one-third of Angolans live in Luanda, 57% of whom live in poverty. Living conditions in Luanda are extremely poor, with essential services such as safe drinking water still in short supply.[13] Luanda is one of the world's most expensive cities for overseas foreigners.[14] Manufacturing includes processed foods, beverages, textiles, cement and other building materials, plastic products, metalware, cigarettes, and shoes/clothes. Petroleum (found in nearby off-shore deposits) is refined in the city, although this facility was repeatedly damaged during the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002). Luanda has an excellent natural harbour; the chief exports are coffee, cotton, sugar, diamonds, iron, and salt. The city also has a thriving building industry, an effect of the nationwide economic boom experienced since 2002, when political stability returned with the end of the civil war. Economic growth is largely supported by oil extraction activities, although massive diversification is taking place. Large investment (domestic and international), along with strong economic growth, has dramatically increased construction of all economic sectors in the city of Luanda.[15]

TAAG Angolan Airlines has its head office in Luanda.[16]

Transportation

The 1950's Anangola building, in Luanda

Luanda is the starting point of the Luanda railway that goes due east to Malanje. The civil war left the railway non-functional, but a Chinese firm has taken up a contract to rebuild many Angolan railways, including the Luanda Railway which has almost been completed (Oct. 2009).[17]

The main airport of Luanda is Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, which is the largest in the country. Currently, a new international airport, Angola International Airport is under construction southeast of the city, a few miles beyond Viana, which was expected to be opened in 2011.[18] However, as the Angolan government did not continue to make the payments due to the Chinese enterprise in charge of the construction, the firm has suspended its work in 2010.

The port of Luanda currently serves as the largest port of Angola, and connects Angola to the rest of the world. Major expansion of this port is also taking place, with the completion of a new complex just last year, the port is expanding rapidly.[19]

Luanda's roads are currently in a poor state of repair, but are currently undergoing a massive reconstruction process by the government in order to relieve traffic congestion in the city. Major road repairs can be found taking place in nearly every neighborhood, including a major 6-lane highway connected Luanda to Viana, which is nearing partial completion in October.[20] Many of the citizens of Luanda rely on privately owned combi taxis for transport, although recently the city has invested more into a public bus system.

Reconstruction

Alvalade neighbourhood, in Luanda

Angola, which is forecast to be one of the world's fastest growing economies,[15] has been undergoing a massive national reconstruction. The central government allocates funds to all regions of the country, but the capital region receives the bulk of these funds. Since the end of the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), stability has been widespread in the country, and major reconstruction has been ongoing since 2002.

Major reconstruction in Luanda has been in nearly all aspects of society. Major road rehabilitation, including road widening, application of asphalt, and re-routing efforts are all currently being done throughout Luanda. The Brazilian construction firm Odebrechet, are currently constructing two six-lane highways. One highway will provide speedy access to Cacuaco, Viana, Samba, and the Kilamba Kiaxi district of Luanda to the new airport of Luanda.[21] The other highway will connect the city center] of Luanda to Viana, and is expected to be completed by the end of 2008.[21]

Major social housing is also being constructed to house those who reside in slums, which dominate the landscape of Luanda. A large Chinese firm has been given a contract to construct the majority of replacement housing in Luanda.[22] The Angolan minister of health recently stated poverty in Angola will be overcome by an increase in jobs and the housing of every citizen.[23]

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Luanda is twinned with:

References

  1. Calculated from the results of the 2007/08 voters' registration (2.4 milliuon)and an adult population of about 47% (over the age of 18)
  2. Portuguese Colonial Remains
  3. João C. Curto. Álcool e Escravos: O Comércio Luso-Brasileiro do Álcool em Mpinda, Luanda e Benguela durante o Tráfico Atlântico de Escravos (c. 1480-1830) e o Seu Impacto nas Sociedades da África Central Ocidental. Translated by Márcia Lameirinhas. Tempos e Espaços Africanos Series, vol. 3. Lisbon: Editora Vulgata, 2002. ISBN 978-972-8427-24-5
  4. Njoku, Onwuka N. (1997). Mbundu. pp. 38–39. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Mayor's International Council Sister Cities Program". Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  6. Angola antes da Guerra, a film of Luanda, Portuguese Angola (before 1975), youtube.com
  7. LuandaAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Luanda, Portuguese Angola (before 1975), youtube.com
  8. Flight from Angola, The Economist (August 16, 1975).
  9. Dewar, Robert E. and Wallis, James R; "Geographical patterning in interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach"; in Journal of Climate, 12; pp. 3457-3466
  10. "Average Conditions Luanda, Angola". BBC Weather. Retrieved August 19, 2009. 
  11. International Spotlight: Angola
  12. ANGOLA: Easy access to guns concern as election nears
  13. Keeping the flow in Angola's slums, Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom (February 13, 2009)
  14. "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2010 - City rankings". www.mercer.com. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "GDP growth: A look ahead". The Economist. 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. 77.
  17. "China International Fund Limited". Chinainternationalfund.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. "China International Fund Limited". Chinainternationalfund.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  19. [1][dead link]
  20. "Angola: Part of Luanda's Highway Complete By December". allAfrica.com. 2008-08-15. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 "OT Africa Line - Angola". Otal.com. 2004-07-01. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  22. "China International Fund Limited". Chinainternationalfund.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  23. "Angola Press - Economia - Pobreza será combatida com emprego e habitações sociais, diz ministro-adjunto do PM". Portalangop.co.ao. 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  24. Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation
  25. International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities
  26. "International Relations of the City of Porto" (PDF). © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  27. C.M. Porto

External links

af:Luanda

am:ሏንዳ ar:لواندا an:Luanda frp:Luanda ast:Luanda bn:লুয়ান্ডা zh-min-nan:Luanda be:Горад Луанда be-x-old:Люанда bo:ལའུན་ཌ། bs:Luanda br:Luanda bg:Луанда ca:Luanda cs:Luanda cy:Luanda da:Luanda de:Luanda et:Luanda el:Λουάντα es:Luanda eo:Luando eu:Luanda fa:لوآندا hif:Luanda fr:Luanda fy:Luanda ga:Luanda gl:Luanda ko:루안다 hy:Լուանդա hr:Luanda io:Luanda id:Luanda os:Луандæ is:Lúanda it:Luanda he:לואנדה jv:Luanda ka:ლუანდა kw:Luanda ky:Луанда sw:Luanda ht:Louanda ku:Luanda la:Luanda lv:Luanda lb:Luanda lt:Luanda lij:Luanda ln:Lwanda lmo:Luanda hu:Luanda mk:Луанда mg:Luanda mr:लुआंडा ms:Luanda mwl:Luanda nah:Luanda nl:Luanda (stad) ja:ルアンダ no:Luanda nn:Luanda nov:Luanda oc:Luanda pap:Luanda pms:Luanda pl:Luanda pt:Luanda ro:Luanda rm:Luanda qu:Luanda ru:Луанда sco:Luanda sq:Luanda simple:Luanda sk:Luanda sr:Луанда fi:Luanda sv:Luanda tl:Luanda tet:Luanda th:ลูอันดา tg:Луанда tr:Luanda udm:Луанда uk:Луанда vec:Luanda vi:Luanda war:Luanda wo:Luanda yo:Luanda zh:罗安达

Personal tools