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Petals of Blood
Petals of Blood FrontCover AWS.jpg
Heinemann edition
African Writers Series
Author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o
Country Kenya, Africa
Language English, Gikuyu
Genre Novel
Publication date
1977
Media type Print Paperback

Petals of Blood is a novel written by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o first published in 1977. Set in Kenya just after independece, the story follows four of the novel's major characters - Munira, Abdulla, Wanja, and Karega - whose lives are all intertwined due to the KLFA Uprising. In order to escape city life, each retreats to the small, pastoral village of Ilmorog. As the novel progresses, the characters deal with the repercussions of the KLFA Uprising as well as with a new, rapidly modernizing Kenya.

The novel largely deals with the scepticism of change after Kenya's liberation from the British Empire, questioning to what extent free Kenya merely emulates, and subsequently perpetuates the oppression found during its time as a colony. Other themes include the challenging of capitalism, politics, and the effects of modernization. Education, schools, and the KLFA Uprising are also used to unite the characters, who share a common history with one another.

Background

Petals of Blood was Ngugi's first novel written whilst not in full-time education,[1] instead written over a five year period. Initially begun whilst teaching at Northwestern University in 1970, the writer continued to work on the novel after his return to Kenya, finally finishing the novel in Yalta as a guest of the Soviet Writers' Union.[2] Ngugi was inspired to write the novel as a way of synthesizing the notion of a postcolonial nation, and a willingness to portray the agents of social change present in Kenya's change from British East Africa.[3] Petals of Blood was the last of Ngugi's novels to be written first in English.

Despite the political tone to his novels, including Petals of Blood, Ngugi had avoided government interference until deciding to write in his native Gikuyu. After the release of Petals of Blood, Ngugi wrote and began work on a Gikuyu language play called 'Ngaahika Ndeenda' (I Will Marry When I Want). He was then arrested and detained on 30 December 1977, for crimes relating to his "literary-political" background. After this period, all of his novels would be written first in Gikuyu and later translated into English,[4] a move understood to be a conscious decision to focus more strongly on the peasant workers of Kenya as inspiration for his novels.[5]

Plot summary

Modern day map of Kenya

The book begins by describing the four main characters - Munira, Karega, Wanja, and Abdulla - just after the revelation that three prominent Kenyans, two businessmen and one educator, have been killed in a fire. The next chapter moves back in the novel's timeline, focusing on Munira's move to Ilmorog, to begin work as a teacher. He is initially met with suspicion and poor classroom attendance, as the villagers think he will give up on the village soon, in much the same way previous teachers have done. However, Munira stays and, with the friendship of Abdullah, another immigrant to Ilmorog who owns a small shop and bar, carves out a life as a teacher.

Soon Wanja arrives, the granddaughter of the town's oldest and most revered lady. She is an attractive, experienced barmaid who Munira begins to fall in love with, despite the fact he is already married. She too is escaping the city, and begins to work for Abdullah, quickly reshaping his shop, and expanding its bar. Karega arrives in Ilmorog to seek Munira to question him about their old school Siriana. After a brief relationship with Munira, Wanja once again grows disillusioned and leaves Ilmorog. The year of her departure is not good for the village as the weather is harsh and no rains come, making for a poor harvest. In an attempt to enact changes, the villagers are inspired by Karega to journey to Nairobi in order to talk to their MP.

Explanation of the novel's title

The title Petals of Blood is derived from a line of Derek Walcott's poem 'The Swamp'.[6] The poem suggests that there is a deadly power within nature that must be respected despite attempts to suggest by humans that they live harmoniously with it.[7]

Originally called 'Ballad of a Barmaid', it is unclear why Ngugi changed the title before release.[8] The phrase "petals of blood" appears several times throughout the novel, with varying associations and meanings. Initially, "petals of blood" is first used by a pupil in Munira's class to describe a flower. Munira quickly chastises the boy, saying that 'there is no colour called blood'.[9] Later, the phrase is used to describe flames, as well relating to virginity during one of Munira's sexual fantasies.

Characters

  • Munira – A schoolteacher who goes to Ilmorog in order to teach in its dilapidated school. He falls in love with Wanja and is the arsonist the police seek.
  • Wanja – Granddaughter of Nyakinyua. An experienced barmaid who flees her past in the city. She falls in love with Karega, although she is still coveted by Munira. She also sleeps with Abdulla because of her reverence for his actions in the Mau Mau rebellion. An industrious barmaid, she helps Abdulla's shop to become successful, and also sells Theng'eta. She later becomes a prostitute and runs her own brothel before being injured in Munira's arson attack.
  • Abdulla – A shopkeeper who lost his leg in the Mau Mau rebellion. His main assests in life are his shop and his donkey, as well as a boy Joseph, who he had taken in and cares for as a brother. He is the only major character to have worked with the Mau Mau during the rebellion.
  • Karega – Young man who works as a teaching assistant at Munira's school before becoming disillusioned and heading for the city. After the trip to Nairobi, he becomes enamoured with socialism, and starts to educate himself on its principles and on the law. However, he later becomes disillusioned with the effects of education, and how apt it is in the struggle for liberation. As a youth, he dated Munira's sister who subsequently committed suicide; this was unknown to Munira until Karega reveals it to him and to others after having drunk Theng'eta.
  • Nyakinyua – The village's most revered woman, and the grandmother of Wanja. She performs all of the traditional ceremonies in the village. At first she is highly sceptical of Munira's arrival, believing that he will flee the village like his predecessors. After her death, Wanja sells her business to save Nyakinyua's land from the banks and also uses the proceeds to start a brothel.
  • Kimeria – Ruthless businessman who is part of the new Kenya elite. Has an interest in Ilmorog for business purposes, and had a previous relationship with Wanja. As the villagers travel to Nairobi to meet with their politician, Kimeria holds Wanja hostage and rapes her.
  • Chui – a schoolboy at the prestigious, previously European Siriana school, he leads a student revolt. However, when he returns to lead the school, he enacts an oppression far greater than was present during colonial rule. He later become one of the new Kenya elite, and is involved in business dealings with both Kimeria and Nderi wa Riera.
  • Nderi wa Riera – the local politician for Ilmorog's district, he lives and works in Nairobi. He is a demagogue who does not listen to the appeals of the villagers when they meet him. Rather, he is interested in Ilmorog merely for business, and is in league with Kimiera. With Kimeria and Chui, he is a director of the widely successful Theng'eta Breweries.

Major Themes

Capitalism

Capitalism is decried in Petals of Blood, with the new Kenyan elite portrayed as controlled by the 'faceless system of capitalism'.[10] The everyman loses out to capitalist endeavours, and is essentially exploited by the new Kenyan elite. Farmers are forced to mark out their lands and mortgage them with loans linked to the success of their harvest; as the quality of the harvests waver, many are forced to sell their land, unable to match their loan repayments. Thang'eta is another symbol of capitalism. Taken from a drink that Nyakinyua brews in a traditional ceremony, it is soon marketed, and becomes extremely popular. Wanja, who introduces the drink to Abdulla's bar, is then exploited by big business who forces her to stop her Thang'eta operation. Neither she nor Munira, who creates the slogan, receive the fruits of their labour. Originally a drink used to help people relax and escape their current problems,[11] it becomes 'a drink of strife'.[12]

Cities are portrayed as places where capitalism flourishs and are contrasted strongly with the village of Ilmorog. In its pursuit for the modern, Kenya adopts capitalism at the expense of tradition as the city begins 'to encroach upon and finally swallow the traditional and the rural.'[13] As time progresses, Ilmorog changes vastly, as do the people that inhabit it. With its modernization, influenced greatly by capitalism and the chance to increase trade, Munira reflects on these changes and how they link with capitalism, saying that 'it was New Kenya. It was New Ilmorog. Nothing was free.'[14]

Land

Agriculture is an important theme in Petals of Blood, most notably in the town of Ilmorog, an isolated, pastoral community. After modernization, the farmers lands are fenced off and ultimately seized when they cannot repay their loans. Although none of the main characters lose their land in this way (Wanja, however, sells her family's plot), it is significant in that Kenya recreates what happened during colonial rule: the loss of land and subsequent desire to reclaim it was "the central claim" for those who rebelled against the settlers.[15]

The notion of land and fertilisation is often linked to Wanja, who is seen as the embodiment of these concepts.[15] As she is portrayed as "the symbol of the nation",[16] the loss of her land to the new Kenyan elite is an important parallel with Ngugi's depiction of Kenya. Land is also linked to Kenya itself, with Ngugi suggesting that anyone who sells their land is a traitor.[17]

Education

Education is often depicted cynically in Petals of Blood. Munira is a teacher, but lacks strong abilities to guide his pupils, instead preferring to stand back and not to assert any of his own beliefs. He rejects the claims of others that the children should be taught more about being African, instead preferring that they be taught politics, and things which are "fact". Two of the three "betrayers of the people", those who are ultimately murdered, are also educators; they are untrustworthy, and depict the education system as a "problematic institution" in independent Kenya.[18]

Although there is a brief suggestion that education does provide hope, as Joseph succeeds academically at Siriana, it the education system as a whole which is criticized. The notion of education as self-liberating is critiqued, as Joseph's success is still within the Siriana school, previously a bastion of "European" education.[19] In a more political sense, Karega's self-education causes him to doubt his initial belief that education was a tool to gain liberation; originally taken in by the lawyer's socialist rhetoric, Karega's dealings with education ultimately leave him disillusioned.[20]

Style

Petals of Blood relies heavily on flashbacks, using the points of view of the four major characters to piece together previous events. As each character is questioned by the police, the novel takes on certain characteristics of the detective novel, with a police offer trying to ascertain details of their pasts in order to find the murderer of Chui, Kimeria, and Mzigo.[21] The flashbacks also encompass several different timeframes. The present day action takes place over the course of 10 days; the past events take places over 12 years. Ngugi also discusses Kenya's past, going as far back as 1896, when Kenya was "annexed" by the British.[7]

The narrative voice shifts between Munira and the other characters describing the events of their lives, and an omniscient narrator. There is also a suggestion of a communal narrative voice, as Ngugi draws on the mythic past of Kenya to place the novel in a wider context than simply the colonial.[7][22] This communal voice is at work through the various Gikuyu songs with which Ngugi intersperses the novel; there is a great reliance placed on such songs, which help tell, through the oral tradition of linking of proverbs and fables, the history of Ilmorog and Kenya before colonial intervention.[23]

Reception

Petals of Blood caused a stronger critical reaction than Ngugi's previous novels. The use of the past and historical memory is far more widespread in the novel due largely to the use of flashbacks, and questions relating to the past "from the central concerns" of the novel.[24] The strong political motif that runs throughout the novel has also been discussed, focusing on the relation of political ideas to the Petals of Blood's wider framwork: Ngugi was lauded for his "successful marriage" of political content and artistic form.[25] During the 1980s the novel was adapted by Mary Benson into a two hour long radio play starring Joe Marcel by BBC Radio 3.

Ngugi was criticised however for his stylistic form in Petals of Blood. It was suggested that the social realism of the novel did not accurately represent or complement the socialist ideals put forth.[25] John Updike suggested that Ngugi's desire to permeate the plot with political ideas detracts from his writing. The novel's plot was also deemed to be "rambling" as well as being too short, or too much curtailed.[25]

Footnotes

  1. Gikandi 2000, p. xii
  2. Gugelberger 1986, p. 118
  3. Gikandi 2000, p. 130
  4. Ngugi 1995, p. 74
  5. Gikandi 2000, p. 37
  6. Walcott 1993, p. 18
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Killam 2004, p. 90
  8. "René Richard (Université Paul Valéry, Monpellier)". Retrieved 15 November 2008.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.[dead link]
  9. Thiong'o 1986, p. 6
  10. Williams 1999, p. 96
  11. Gikandi 2000, p. 141
  12. Ngugi 1986, p. 270
  13. Williams 1999, p. 82
  14. Ngugi 1986, p. 280
  15. 15.0 15.1 Stilz 2002, p. 138
  16. Mwangi 2004, p. 70
  17. Ngugi 1986, p. 344
  18. Williams 1999, p. 86
  19. Thiong'o 1995, p. 34
  20. Williams 1999, pp. 87–88
  21. Losambe 2004, p. 42
  22. Williams 1999, p. 80
  23. Gérard 1986, p. 919
  24. Williams 1999, p. 78
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Thiong'o 1995, p. 75

Bibliography