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  No recognition by any state
  Recognised by UN non-members only
  UN non-members recognised by at least one UN member
  UN member states, not recognized by at least one other state

Some contemporary geopolitical entities that wish to be recognised as sovereign states have been hindered by a lack of diplomatic recognition. In the past, similar entities have existed, and there are now entities claiming independence, often with de facto control of their territory, with recognition ranging from almost all other recognised states to no states at all.

There are two traditional doctrines that provide interpretations of when a sovereign state should be recognised as a member of the international community. The "declarative" theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: 1) a defined territory; 2) a permanent population; 3) a government and 4) a capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the "constitutive" theory defines a state as a person of international law if it is recognised as such by another state that is already a member of the international community.[1]

Several entities reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto complete or partial control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but their statehood is not recognised by one or more other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised entities may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the Republic of China and People's Republic of China, and North and South Korea). Entities that are only recognised by a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929), Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation), among other cases. The recognition of the State of Palestine by over one hundred states is a contemporary example. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

Criteria for inclusion

The criteria for inclusion means a polity must claim statehood, lack recognition from at least one state, and either:

  • have de facto control over a territory, a population, a government, a capacity to enter into relations with other states, or
  • be recognised as a state by at least one other state.

Background

Some states do not establish relations with new nations quickly and thus do not recognise them despite having no dispute and sometimes favorable relations. These are excluded from the list. Some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other nations and are members of the United Nations, but are included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts. Currently there are 192 United Nations (UN) member states. The Holy See holds observer status in the United Nations.[2]

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany,[3] Italy,[4] the United States,[5] and the United Kingdom,[6] maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC. Kosovo,[7] the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic,[8] Northern Cyprus,[9] Abkhazia,[10] Transnistria,[10] Sahrawi Republic,[11] Somaliland,[12] and Palestine[13] also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

Non-UN member states not recognised by any state

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Somaliland Somaliland was granted independence by the United Kingdom in 1960 after the decolonisation of British Somaliland and merged with Italian Somaliland a few days later to form Somalia. It declared its independence and withdrew from Somalia in 1991. Currently, no state recognises it.  Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[14]

Non-UN member states recognised only by non-UN members

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence in 1992. It is currently recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[15]  Azerbaijan claims Nagorno-Karabakh as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [16][17][18][19]
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) Transnistria declared its independence in 1990. It is currently recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and South Ossetia.[19]  Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Disputed status
[20]

Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Republic of Abkhazia Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999.[21] It is currently recognised by four UN member-states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru), and three UN non-member states (Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria).[15][22]  Georgia claims Abkhazia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[23][24][25][26]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) The Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan), constitutionally formed in 1912, is currently recognised as a state by 22 UN members and the Holy See. All other UN member states do not officially recognise the ROC as a state; some of them regard its controlled territory as de jure part of the People's Republic of China (PRC) while some others have used careful diplomatic language to avoid taking a position as to whether the territory of the ROC is part of the PRC.[Note 1]. Throughout the years, the ROC has adopted differing positions towards simultaneous recognition of the ROC and the PRC.[28]  People's Republic of China claims that the Republic of China no longer exists and claims all of the territory under ROC jurisdiction as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Political status
[29]
 Republic of Kosovo Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is currently recognised by 75 UN members and one UN non-member state, the Republic of China (Taiwan), although Kosovo does not recognise the ROC. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.  Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
[30][31]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983. It is currently recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of the Islamic Conference has granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid.[32]  Cyprus claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Cyprus dispute
[33]
 State of Palestine The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) declared the State of Palestine in Algiers in 1988. At the time the PLO had no control over any part of the proclaimed territory and all of it is still occupied by Israel.[34] Today it allows the PLO to execute certain administrative tasks of self-government in some parts of the territories through the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) established in 1994 according to the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.[35] The PNA currently operates in parts of the West Bank, and was operating in the Gaza Strip before the split in the PNA resulted in Gaza takeover by Hamas. The PLO participates in the United Nations as a non-state entity with observer status and is designated "Palestine".[36][37]
The State of Palestine is widely recognised by states, although often in equivocal terms.[38] Legal analysts reckoned the figure at 117 in 2005[39] and at about 130 in 2010.[40] Sources for recognition by specific states are available for between 112 and 118 of these. The State of Palestine has membership in the Arab League and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference.
 Israel currently occupies the area,[35] regarding it as disputed territory whose final status will be determined in future negotiations. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Proposals for a Palestinian state
[54][55][56][57][58][59][60]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. The SADR, which declared its independence in 1976, has been recognised by 83 UN members and is a member state of the African Union. Several states, however, have since retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination, with 57 retaining diplomatic ties.[61][62] Western Sahara is currently regarded as de jure part of Morocco by 25 UN members[citation needed] and the Arab League. It is currently listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.  Morocco claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Legal status
[63]
 Republic of South Ossetia South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It is currently recognised by four UN member-states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru), and three non-UN member states (Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria).[15][22][64]  Georgia claims South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[24][25][65]

Partially unrecognised UN member states

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Armenia Armenia, independent since 1991, is currently not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, as Pakistan has a position of supporting Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[66][67]
 People's Republic of China (PRC) The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is currently not recognised by one UN non-member, the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (currently 22 UN member states and the Holy See). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognizing the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru).[68][69] Some states which currently only recognize the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu).[70][71][72].According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[Note 1]  Republic of China considers itself the sole legal government over all of China. Foreign relations, missions (of)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
[73]
 Cyprus Cyprus, independent since 1960, is currently not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.  Northern Cyprus claims part of the island of Cyprus Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[74][75][76][77]
 Israel Israel, independent since 1948, is not recognised by 22 UN members and one UN non-member, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[citation needed] (see Arab-Israeli conflict). It is recognised by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which claims the right to set up a state in territory currently controlled by Israel.  State of Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, claims sovereignty over territory occupied by Israel,[35] specifically the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[78][79][80][81][82]
 North Korea North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[83]  South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[83][84][85]
 South Korea South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  North Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[86][87]

Excluded entities

  • By definition, the list does not include uncontacted peoples who exercise varying degrees of de facto sovereignty over the areas under their control, but either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose status as such are currently too data deficient to be definitively known.
  • Entities considered to be micronations are not included.[97] Even though micronations generally claim to be sovereign and independent, it is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory.[98] Micronations are usually not considered of geopolitical relevance.[98] For a complete list, see list of micronations.
  • Those of the current civil wars and other situations with problem over government succession, regardless of temporary alignment with the inclusion criteria (by having control over permanently populated territory or by receiving recognition as state or legitimate government), where the conflict is still in its active phase, the situation is too rapidly changing and no relatively stable rump states have emerged yet.
  • Those of the current irredentist movements and governments in exile that don't satisfy the inclusion criteria by simultaneously not having control over permanently populated territory and not been recognized as state or legitimate government by any other state.

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area currently controlled by the PRC and the area currently controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept that the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while only recognizing the PRC as a state. Some states only recognize the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC.[27]

References

  1. Thomas D. Grant, The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999), chapter 1.
  2. "Non-member State". Un.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  3. "Germany - Countries A to Z". Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  4. "Ambasciate Consolati e Uffici di promozione". Esteri.it. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  5. U.S. Department of State Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions Retrieved 2011-02-03
  6. "Find an Embassy". Fco.gov.uk. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  7. "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  8. "Permanent Representations". Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
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  10. 10.0 10.1 "Embassies & Representatives of Abkhazia". Government of Abkhazia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  11. Embassies and representative offices
  12. "Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the world". Government of Somaliland. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  13. "Embassies, Missions, General and Special Delegations of Palestine abroad". WebGaza.net. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  14. BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Somaliland. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 (Russian) Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он." English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  16. BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  17. (Russian) Transnistria wants to join Russia (translated title), September 2008.
  18. (Russian) Moldova, September 2008.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie.net. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  20. "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  21. "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia" The Tiraspol Times
  23. Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". Conciliation Resources. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Russia recognises Georgian rebels - BBC, 2008-08-26 [1]
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  26. John Pike. "Georgia mocks Nauru's recognition of Abkhazia". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  27. Taiwan cuts ties with Costa Rica over recognition for China
  28. Bush III, Richard C. "The Role of the United States in Taiwan-PRC Relations", Taiwan: Beyond the Economic Miracle M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 0-87332-879-5 p. 358 Online version available at Google Books
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  30. "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  31. "Kosovo" (PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  32. "Security Council resolution 220 (1966) on Cyprus". Un.int. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
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  34. 34.0 34.1 Staff writers (20 February 2008). "Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 January 2011.:"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air,[41] sea beyond internal waters,[41][42] land[43]) in the Gaza strip and maximum in "Area C".[44][45][46][47][48] See also Israeli-occupied territories.
    [34][49][50][51][52][53]
  36. "UN General Assembly Resolution 3237". Thejerusalemfund.org. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  37. UN observers: Non-member States and Entities
  38. Crawford, James (1999). "Israel (1948-1949) and Palestine (1998-1999): Two Studies in the Creation of States", in Goodwin-Gil G.S. and S. Talmon, The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, pp. 110-115
  39. Kurz, Anat N. (2005) Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalisation of a popular Struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press ISBN 1-84519-032-7, ISBN 978-1-84519-032-3 p. 123
  40. Boyle, Francis A. (30 September 2010). "The Impending Collapse of Israel in Palestine". MWC News. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip
  42. Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones"
  43. Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  44. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 17: bad argument #1 to 'old_pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  45. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  46. "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  47. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
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  50. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
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  52. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  53. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  54. Official website of the Palestinian National Authority. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
  55. Venezuela Pledges Support for Palestinian Statehood during Abbas Visit, November 2009.
  56. "Costa Rica Recognizes 'Palestine'", The Journal of Turkish Weekly 26 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-07
  57. "South African Representative Office to the Palestinian National Authority". Sarep.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  58. "Embassy of the State of Palestine to the Republic of Uzbekistan, Central Asia and Azerbaijan". Palestineuzbek.com. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
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  60. "Embassy of the State of Palestine in Bratislava". Palestine.sk. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  61. "Here the states which recognize the SADR. It is a non official list, with dates of recognition and cancelation:". ARSO. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
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  63. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (27 February 1976). "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Western Sahara Online. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  64. (Russian) "Республика Науру признала независимость Южной Осетии" 16 December 2009 Retrieved 2011-02-03 "Republic of Nauru recognizes the independence of South Ossetia" English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  65. Stojanovic, Srdjan (23 September 2003). "OCHA Situation Report". Center for International Disaster Information. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  66. Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  67. Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  68. Lee, Meifang "Minister announces resumption of diplomatic ties with Nauru" Taiwan Today 2005-05-20 Retrieved 2011-04-29
  69. "Kiribati president upbeat on conference, Taiwan" Radio Australia 21 June 2010 Retrieved 2011-04-29
  70. Crocombe, Ron Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West University of the South Pacific. Institute of Pacific Studies 2007 p. 258 Online version available at Google Books
  71. "Looking East: China-Africa Engagements Liberia Case Study" African Center for Economic Transformation, Monrovia December 2009
  72. Chiu, Hungdah "The International Legal Status of the Republic of China (Revised Version)" Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary Asian Studies Number 5 - 1992 (112), School of Law, University of Maryland ISBN 0-925153-23-0
  73. "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". International Human Rights Treaties and Documents Database. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  74. European Parliament Directorate-General External Policies Policy Department "Turkey and the problem of the recognition of Cyprus" 20 January 2005 Retrieved 2011-02-03
  75. CIA World Factbook (28 February 2008). "Cyprus". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  76. "Cyprus exists without Turkey's recognition: president". XINHUA. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  77. European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs "The influence of Turkish military forces on political agenda-setting in Turkey, analysed on the basis of the Cyprus question" 18 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-03
  78. Government of Israel (14 May 1948). "Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Yale University. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  79. "'Reply' Online Book Chapter 1". Mythsandfacts.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  80. "Khartoum Resolution". Council on Foreign Relations.
  81. Singh, L.K (2008). Foreign Exchange Management and Air Ticketing. Gyan Publishing House. p. 254. ISBN 9788182054745.
  82. Government of Israel. "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  83. 83.0 83.1 "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  84. "Declaration of Independence". TIME. 19 August 1966. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  85. Scofield, David (4 January 2005). "Seoul's double-talk on reunification". Asia Times. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  86. US Library of Congress (7 October 2000). "World War II and Korea". Country Studies. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  87. Sterngold, James (3 September 1994). "China, Backing North Korea, Quits Armistice Commission". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  88. Permanent Observer Mission of the Order of Malta to the United Nations in New York
  89. Shaw, Malcolm Nathan International Law Fifth Edition Cambridge University Press 2003 ISBN 0521824737 p. 218 Online version available at Google Books
  90. Global Legal Information Network "Reconocese a la Soberana Orden Militar de Malta como Entidad Internacional Independiente"
  91. Knol Orden de Malta Soberana Orden Militar de San Juan de Jerusalén-Sovereign Military Order of Malta - S.M.O.M.
  92. "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica" English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  93. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintains embassies around the world and receives accreditations from foreign ambassadors.
  94. The French Republic does not recognise the SMOM as a subject of international law; see a statement by the spokesman of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Feb 7, 1997.
  95. SMOM Bilateral relations with countries
  96. Council of the European Union - Schengen Visa Working Party - Table of travel documents
  97. Micronations are not included even if they are recognized by another micronation, such as the "BjornSocialist Republic" that claims sovereignty over six square metres of Swedish territory, and is recognized by Ladonia, another micronation which claims one square kilometer of Swedish territory.
  98. 98.0 98.1 It's often up to debate whether micronations have sovereign control over their claimed territories, that are of minuscule size, or the state from which the micronation claims to have seceded simply doesn't deem such declaration (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way and considers the micronation to be a combination of unofficial private announcements of individuals and a private property, where the individuals remain its (of the state that the micronation claims to have seceded from) citizens and the property remains part of its territory and both remain subject to its laws.