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African nationalism is the nationalist political movement for one unified Africa, or the less significant objective of the acknowledgment of African tribes by instituting their own states, as well as the safeguarding of their indigenous customs. Establishments which championed the cause included the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society in the Gold Coast (founded 1897), the African National Congress in South Africa (1912) and the National Congress of West Africa (1920).

When the liberated slaves and other progenies of the African-American populace commenced their homecoming to the African continent, principally in the western part, many overseas-directed churches were deserted by a large amount of Africans, and, in their stead, self-sufficient and self-governing churches of the Africans’ own were set up. These often involved themselves in the battle against colonialism.

By the time of World War II, almost every nation in Africa had his own pro-autonomy factions, initiating the period of Decolonization. The National Congress of British West Africa was one such organization. The Atlantic Charter, from 1941, and the critical approach to colonialism by the USSR and USA served only to fortify the expanding dogma.

In the years following World War II, African nationalism found itself significantly stirred by men like Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Nelson Mandela of South Africa.