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Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.
Total population: 591.662 million (2011)
Total area: 20.438 million sq km
Density: 28.95/sq km

The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Spanish: [Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help), Portuguese: [Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help), French: [Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help), Dutch: [Gemeenschap van de Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caribische landen] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)) is the tentative name[1] of a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean nations created on February 23, 2010, at the Rio GroupCaribbean Community Unity Summit held in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico.[2][3] It consists of all sovereign countries in the Americas, except for Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United States. British and Danish dependencies in the Americas are also not represented in CELAC.

CELAC is an example of a decade-long push for deeper integration within the Americas.[4] CELAC is being created to deepen Latin American integration and to reduce the once overwhelming influence of the United States on the politics and economics of Latin America, and is seen as an alternative to the Organization of American States (OAS), the regional body organized largely by Washington in 1948, ostensibly as a countermeasure to potential Soviet influence in the region.[4][5] [6]

CELAC will be the successor of the Rio Group and the Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC).[7] In July 2010 CELAC selected President of Venezuela, socialist Hugo Chávez, and President of Chile, conservative Sebastián Piñera, as co-chairs of the forum that will draft statutes for the organization.[8]

Countries

CELAC comprises 33 countries that have five different official languages:

Eighteen Spanish-speaking countries (56% of the area, 63% of the population)

Twelve English-speaking countries (1.3% of the area, 1.1% of the population)

One Portuguese-speaking country (42% of the area, 34% of the population)

One French-speaking country (0.1% of the area, 1.6% of the population)

One Dutch-speaking country (0.8% of the area, 0.1% of the population)

Twelve countries are in South America, which accounts for 87% of the area and 68% of the population.

Rationale

On February 23, 2010, Latin American leaders at the 23rd Rio Group summit in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico, said they are forming an organization of the Latin American and Caribbean nations. Once its charter is developed, the group will be formally established in July 2011, at a summit in Caracas. The bloc will be the main forum for political dialogue for the area, without the United States or Canada.[9][10]

In an interview in February 2010, President Evo Morales of Bolivia said, "A union of Latin American countries is the weapon against imperialism. It is necessary to create a regional body that excludes the United States and Canada. ...Where there are U.S. military bases that do not respect democracy, where there is a political empire with his blackmailers, with its constraints, there is no development for that country, and especially there is no social peace and, therefore, it is the best time for prime ministers of Latin America and the Caribbean to gestate this great new organization without the United States to free our peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean."[6]

At the 23rd Rio Group summit, President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela said, "Now here, in Mexico, a document, a commitment, the creation of a body of Latin America and the Caribbean, without the USA, without Canada (...) Now we can say from Latin America, from Mexico (...) we have revived the dream and project of Bolívar."[11] Mexican President Felipe Calderón added, "We decided, for the first time, to form the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States as a regional space consisting of all states."[12] Calderon said, "We cannot remain disunited; we cannot successfully take on the future based on our differences; now it's up to us to unite without discounting the things that make us different … to unite based on our similarities, which far outweigh our differences." [13] Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said it is "A historic fact of great significance." [14]

President Rafael Correa of Ecuador said that the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States "can be much more effective than other instances to solve ourselves, with our own strengths, our own visions, our conflicts."[15]

Reaction

The announcement prompted debate and discussion across Latin America and the Caribbean about whether it's more beneficial to have close ties with U.S. and Canada or to work independently.[16][17]

Raúl Zibechi, writing for Mexico's centre-left La Jornada newspaper said, "The creation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States is part of a global and continental shift, characterized by the decline of U.S. hegemony and the rise of a group of regional blocs that form part of the new global balance."[18]

An editorial in Brazil's conservative Estadao newspaper said, "CELAC reflects the disorientation of the region's governments in relation to its problematic environment and its lack of foreign policy direction, locked as it is into the illusion that snubbing the United States will do for Latin American integration what 200 years of history failed to do."[14]

First summit

CELAC's inaugural summit was due to be held in mid-2011, but was postponed because of the ill-health of Hugo Chavez, president of the host nation, Venezuela. The summit was instead held on 2 and 3 December 2011 in Caracas.[19] It primarily focused on the global economic crisis and its effects on the region. Several leaders, including presidents Cristina Fernandez, Dilma Rousseff and Juan Manuel Santos, encouraged an increase in regional trade, economic development, and further economic cooperation among members in order to defend their growing economies.[16][17]

Chavez, and other leaders such as Rafael Correa and Daniel Ortega, expressed hope that the bloc would work to further integration, end U.S. hegemony and consolidate control over regional affairs.[16] Chavez, citing the Monroe Doctrine as the original confirmation of U.S. interference in the region, openly called for CELAC to replace the OAS: "As the years go by, CELAC is going to leave behind the old and worn-out OAS."[17] Correa called for a new human rights commission to replace the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Other leaders argued that the organisation should be used as a tool to resolve regional disagreements and uphold democratic values, but not as a replacement of the OAS.[16][17] Santos stated that he would like to see dialogue within the group over whether existing counter-drug regulations should be revised.[16] The president of the Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) said he expects that Parlatino will become the main legislative institution of CELAC.[20]

The next two summits are scheduled to be held in Chile in 2012 and Cuba in 2013.[21]

Indicators

Country Area[22]
(km²)
Population[23]
2011
GDP (PPP)[24]
(millions, Intl. $)
2010
GDP (PPP)
per capita
[25]
(Intl. $)
2010
HDI[26]
2011
FSI[27]
2011
CPI[28]
2011
IEF[29]
2011
GPI[30]
2011
WPFI[31]
2010
DI[32]
2010
Income
inequality
[33]
2000-2011
 Antigua and Barbuda 443 87,884 1,425 16,400 0.764 59.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Argentina 2,780,400 41,769,726 596,000 14,700 0.797 46.8 3.0 51.7 1.852 16.35 6.84 45.8
 The Bahamas 13,880 313,312 8,921 28,700 0.771 56.5 7.3 68.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Barbados 430 286,705 6,227 21,800 0.793 52.8 7.8 68.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Belize 22,966 321,115 2,651 8,400 0.699 67.7 N/A 63.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Bolivia 1,098,581 10,118,683 47,880 4,800 0.663 82.9 2.8 50.0 2.045 28.13 5.92 57.3
 Brazil 8,514,877 203,429,773 2,172,000 10,800 0.718 65.1 3.8 56.3 2.040 16.60 7.12 53.9
 Chile 756,102 16,888,760 257,900 15,400 0.805 40.7 7.2 77.4 1.710 10.50 7.67 52.1
 Colombia 1,138,910 44,725,543 435,400 9,800 0.710 87.0 3.4 68.0 2.700 51.50 6.55 58.5
 Costa Rica 51,100 4,576,562 51,170 11,300 0.744 50.6 4.8 67.3 1.681 8.08 8.04 50.3
 Cuba 110,860 11,087,330 114,100 9,900 0.776 76.6 4.2 27.7 1.964 78.00 3.52 N/A
 Dominica 751 72,969 758 10,400 0.724 N/A 5.2 63.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Dominican Republic 48,670 9,956,648 87,250 8,900 0.689 76.9 2.6 60.0 2.125 26.13 6.20 48.4
 Ecuador 283,561 15,007,343 115,000 7,800 0.720 82.2 2.7 47.1 2.116 27.50 5.77 49.0
 El Salvador 21,041 6,071,774 43,570 7,200 0.674 76.0 3.4 68.8 2.215 15.83 6.47 46.9
 Grenada 344 108,419 1,098 10,200 0.748 66.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Guatemala 108,889 13,824,463 70,150 5,200 0.574 80.1 2.7 61.9 2.405 20.25 6.05 53.7
 Guyana 214,969 744,768 5,379 7,200 0.633 72.6 2.5 49.4 2.112 16.63 6.05 43.2
 Haiti 27,750 9,719,932 11,480 1,200 0.454 108.0 1.8 52.1 2.288 16.38 4.00 59.5
 Honduras 112,090 8,143,564 33,630 4,200 0.625 78.3 2.6 58.6 2.327 51.13 5.76 57.7
 Jamaica 10,991 2,868,380 23,720 8,300 0.727 67.1 3.3 65.7 2.244 7.67 7.21 45.5
 Mexico 1,964,375 113,724,226 1,567,000 13,900 0.770 75.1 3.0 67.8 2.362 47.50 6.93 51.7
 Nicaragua 130,370 5,666,301 17,710 3,000 0.589 81.2 2.5 58.8 2.021 22.33 5.73 52.3
 Panama 75,420 3,460,462 44,360 13,000 0.768 57.8 3.3 64.9 1.812 21.83 7.15 52.3
 Paraguay 406,752 6,459,058 33,310 5,200 0.665 72.4 2.2 62.3 1.954 16.25 6.40 52.0
 Peru 1,285,216 29,248,943 275,700 9,200 0.725 73.6 3.4 68.6 2.077 30.00 6.40 48.0
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 50,314 684 13,700 0.735 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Saint Lucia 616 161,557 1,798 11,200 0.723 N/A 7.0 70.8 N/A N/A N/A 42.6
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389 103,869 1,069 10,300 0.717 N/A 5.8 66.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Suriname 163,820 491,989 4,711 9,700 0.680 71.1 3.0 53.1 N/A 11.50 6.65 52.8
 Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 1,227,505 26,100 21,200 0.760 63.7 3.2 66.5 2.051 8.50 7.16 N/A
 Uruguay 176,215 3,308,535 47,990 13,700 0.783 40.4 7.0 70.0 1.521 11.75 8.10 42.4
 Venezuela 912,050 27,635,743 345,200 12,700 0.735 78.2 1.9 37.6 2.403 47.33 5.18 43.5
 CELACa 20,438,217 591,662,155 6,451,341 10,900 0.711 69.2 3.9 60.4 2.088 25.32 6.37 50.4

a CELAC total used for indicators 1 through 3; CELAC weighted average used for indicator 4; CELAC unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 12.

The colors indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).

Highest fourth
Upper-mid (2nd to 3rd quartile)
Lower-mid (1st to 2nd quartile)
Lowest fourth

See also

Notes

  • Staff writer (24 February 2010). "CARICOM: We are not mashing up the OAS". Caribbean News Agency. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |trans_title= (help)
  • Singh, Rickey (28 February 2010). "Caricom must list the benefits". Trinidad Express. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |trans_title= (help)[dead link]
  • Sanders, Ronald (28 February 2010). "To OAS or not to OAS: that is the question". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |trans_title= (help)
  • Singh, Rickey (28 February 2010). "Decline of OAS in New Caricom/LA 'Community'". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |trans_title= (help)
  • "Latin America Has Excluded the U.S. … So What Now". La Razon. Bolivia: via translation from WorldMeets.US. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010. Text "editorial" ignored (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |trans_title= (help)

References

  1. América Latina crea una OEA sin Estados Unidos, El País, February 23, 2010.
  2. http://www.mexidata.info/id2573.html Mexidata (English) March 1, 2010
  3. Acuerdan crear Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, Associated Press, February 23, 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 MercoPress, 2010 Feb. 24, "Mexico Gives Birth to the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States," http://en.mercopress.com/2010/02/24/mexico-gives-birth-to-the-community-of-latinamerican-and-caribbean-states
  5. New York Times, 2010 Feb. 28, "Quake Overshadows Clinton Tour of Region," http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/01/world/americas/01clinton.html?ref=americas
  6. 6.0 6.1 http://www.telesurtv.net/noticias/entrev-reportajes/index.php?ckl=471
  7. Presidentes constituyen la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, EFE, February 23, 2010.
  8. CounterPunch, 3 August 2010, Behind the Colombia / Venezuela Tensions
  9. http://www.indymedia-letzebuerg.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44165&Itemid=28 Indymedia (English) February 24, 2010
  10. granma.cu -Cancilleres del Grupo de Río avanzaron en idea de crear nueva instancia regional
  11. TeleSURtv.net - Chávez afirma que con nuevo organismo latinoamericano renace el proyecto de Bolívar
  12. TeleSURtv.net - Crean nuevo organismo regional en Cumbre de Río
  13. Clovis Rossi Latin American Unity Cannot Be Dependent on Excluding the U.S. Folha, Brazil, via translation from WorldMeets.US (English) February 22, 2010
  14. 14.0 14.1 EDITORIAL In Latin America, Rhetoric Triumphs Over Reality Estadao, Brazil, via translation by WorldMeets.US (English) February 25, 2010
  15. TeleSURtv.net - Correa confía en la recién creada Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 17: bad argument #1 to 'old_pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Staff writers (3 December 2011). "Venezuela hosts first CELAC summit". PressTV.
  18. Raúl Zibechi Latin America's Inexorable March Toward 'Autonomy from the Imperial Center' La Jornada, Mexico, via translation by WorldMeets.US (English) February 26, 2010
  19. "Latin American summit re-run to test Chavez health". Reuters. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  20. Staff writers (2 December 2011). "Parlatino Interested in Being CELAC Legislative Organization". Prensa Latina.
  21. Staff writers (2 December 2011). "CELAC Summit Votes for Cuba to Host 3rd Meeting". Prensa Latina.
  22. FIELD LISTING :: AREA, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 4 December 2011.
  23. COUNTRY COMPARISON :: POPULATION, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 4 December 2011.
  24. COUNTRY COMPARISON :: GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 4 December 2011.
  25. COUNTRY COMPARISON :: GDP - PER CAPITA (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 4 December 2011.
  26. "Statistics | Human Development Reports (HDR) | United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)" (PDF). Hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  27. "Failed States Index Scores 2011". The Fund for Peace. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  28. "Corruption Perceptions Index: Transparency International". Transparency.org. 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  29. "Country rankings for trade, business, fiscal, monetary, financial, labor and investment freedoms". Heritage.org. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  30. "GPI Map - 2011 « Global Peace Index « Vision of Humanity". Visionofhumanity.org. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  31. "RSF.org". En.rsf.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
  32. "Democracy Index 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-07.
  33. Human Development Statistical Tables, Human Development Report 2011, United Nations Development Programme. Accessed on 4 December 2011.

External links

ar:مجموعة دول أمريكا اللاتينية والكاريبي cs:Společenství latinskoamerických a karibských států cy:Cymuned o Daleithiau'r Caribi a Lladin America de:Gemeinschaft der Lateinamerikanischen und Karibischen Staaten es:Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños fr:Communauté d'États latino-américains et caraïbes it:Comunità di Stati Latinoamericani e dei Caraibi he:הקהילה של אמריקה הלטינית והמדינות הקריביות nl:Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten ja:ラテンアメリカ・カリブ諸国共同体 pl:Wspólnota Państw Ameryki Łacińskiej i Karaibów pt:Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos ru:Сообщество стран Латинской Америки и Карибского бассейна sv:CELAC zh:拉美及加勒比国家共同体