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Kampala
Kampala
Kampala
CountryUganda
DistrictKampala
Government
 • Lord MayorErias Lukwago
Area
 • Total189 km2 (73 sq mi)
 • Land176 km2 (68 sq mi)
 • Water13 km2 (5 sq mi)
Elevation
1,190 m (3,900 ft)
Population
 (2011 Estimate)
 • Total1,659,600
 • Density9,429.6/km2 (24,423/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)

Kampala is the largest city and capital of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division and Lubaga Division. The city is coterminous with Kampala District.

History

Kampala in the early 1950s

Mutesa I, the Kabaka (king) of Buganda, had chosen the area that was to become Kampala as one of his favorite hunting grounds. The area was made up of hills and wetlands. It was an ideal breeding ground for various game, particularly a species of antelope, the impala (Aepyceros melampus). The origin of the word impala is likely from the Zulu language in South Africa.[2]

The city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs (built in 1881), the Lubiri Palace, the Buganda Parliament and the Buganda Court of Justice. Severely damaged in the Uganda-Tanzania War, the city has since then been rebuilt with constructions of new buildings including hotels, banks, shopping malls, educational institutions, hospitals and improvement of war torn buildings and infrastructure. Traditionally, Kampala was a city of seven hills, but over time it has come to have a lot more.

Features

File:Burton Street, Kampala.jpg
Street in the city centre.

The main campus of Makerere University, one of East and Central Africa's premier institutes of higher learning, can be found in the Makerere Hill area of the City. Kampala is also home to the headquarters of the East African Development Bank, located on Nakasero Hill.

Kampala is said to be built on seven hills, although this is not quite accurate.

  1. The first hill in historical importance is Kasubi Hill, which is where the Kasubi Tombs of the previous Kabakas are housed.
  2. The second is Mengo Hill where the present Lubiri (Kabaka's Palace) is and the Headquarters of the Buganda Court of Justice and of the Lukiiko, Buganda's Parliament.
  3. The third is Kibuli Hill, which is home to the Kibuli Mosque. Islam was brought to Uganda before the Christian missionaries came.
  4. The fourth is Namirembe Hill, home to the Namirembe Anglican Cathedral. The Protestants were the first of the Christian Missions to arrive.
  5. The fifth is Lubaga Hill, where the Rubaga Catholic Cathedral is, and was the headquarters of the White Fathers.
  6. The sixth Nsambya, was the Headquarters of the Mill Hill Mission. It now houses Nsambya Hospital.
  7. The seventh is Kampala Hill, (also known as Old Kampala), the hill of the Impala is where the ruins of Lugard's Fort were. However, the ruins were recently destroyed (2003), when the Uganda Muslim Supreme Council (UMSC) started on reconstruction of a 15,000-seater mosque on land that included the fort. The mosque was begun by Idi Amin but was never completed. The fort was then re-located to a nearby area (a new and similar one constructed), a move that has since been a source of controversy between The Historic Buildings Conservation Trust (HBCT) of Uganda and the UMSC. The UMSC was given the gazetted land as a gift by President Idi Amin in 1972 during its inauguration. This hill is where Kampala got its name.
A view of suburban Kampala


The City spread to Nakasero Hill where the administrative centre and the wealthiest residential area is. Nakasero is also the location of the most upscale hotels in the city including:

There is also Tank Hill, where the water storage tanks that supply the city are located. Mulago Hill is the site of Mulago Hospital, the largest hospital in Uganda. The city is now rapidly expanding to include Makindye Hill and Konge Hill. Makindye Division incorporating Kibuli, Tank Hill and Makindye now has over 300,000 residents. Medical provision in this part of town, being more recently developed, is limited. Hospitals include Kibuli Hospital, St. Francis Hospital Nsambya and the International Hospital (IHK). Philanthropic health services are provided by Hope Clinic Lukuli situated between Tank Hill, Makindye and Konge.

Suburbs include Kololo in the east on Kololo Hill, the highest hill, home to the Uganda Museum. Other suburbs include Namirembe; Kibuli; Kabalagala; Rubaga; Ntinda; Najjera; Kisaasi; Nateete; Najjanankumbi; Kira (which incorporates Banda, Kireka, Bweyogerere, Namugongo, Bulindo and Nsasa) among others.

Other features of the city include the Uganda Museum, Ugandan National Theatre, Nakasero Market and St. Balikuddembe Market (formerly Owino Market). Kampala is also known for its nightlife, which includes several casinos, notably Casino Simba in the Garden City shopping center, Kampala Casino and Mayfair Casino. Entebbe International Airport is located at Entebbe, 35 miles (56 km) away, while Port Bell on the shores of Lake Victoria is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away.

Bahá'í House of Worship in Kampala, Uganda

Also to note is that Kampala hosts one of only seven Bahá'í Houses of Worship in the world. It is known as the Mother Temple of Africa and is situated on Kikaya Hill on the outskirts of the city. Its foundation stone was laid in January 1958, and was dedicated on January 13, 1961. See Bahá'í Faith in Uganda.

The Ahmadiyya Central Mosque in Kampala is the central mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, which has 6 minarets and can hold up to 9,000 worshippers.[3]

Kampala going westwards has Kabaka's Lubiri, the palace of the King of Buganda. Buganda is one of the oldest kingdoms in Africa, dating back to the late 13th Century. Other landmarks include the Kasubi tombs, the magnificent mosque at old Kampala, Namirembe and Rubaga Cathedral, at the very edge there is Kasumba Square Mall at the intersection of Northern Bypass and Busega roundabout.

Transportation

In early 2007, it was announced that Kampala would remove commuter taxis from its streets and replace them with a comprehensive city bus service. (It should be noted that in Kampala the term "taxi" refers to a 15-seater minibus used as public transport.) The bus service was expected to cover the greater Kampala metropolitan area including Mukono, Mpigi, Bombo, Entebbe, Wakiso and Gayaza. The decision is yet to be implemented.[4]

Boda-bodas (local motorcycle transportation) are a popular mode of transport that gives access to many areas with in and outside the city. Standard fees for these range from UGX 500 to 1,000 or more. Boda-bodas are useful for passing through rush-hour traffic although they are usually poorly maintained and often dangerous. [5]

In January 2007, the mayor of Kampala City announced plans to introduce a congestion fee of Sh30,000 per vehicle per day when the bus network is launched.[6] This decision is also yet to be implemented.

Climate

Kampala features a tropical wet and dry climate, however due to city’s higher altitudes, average temperatures are noticeably cooler than what is typically seen in other cities with this type of climate. Kampala seldom gets very hot during the course of the year; the warmest month is January.

Another facet of Kampala’s weather is that it features two distinct wet seasons. There is a lengthy rainy season from August through December and another shorter rainy season that begins in February and lasts through June. However, the shorter rainy season sees substantially heavier rainfall per month, with the month of April typically seeing the heaviest amount of precipitation at an average of around 175 mm of rain.

Climate data for Kampala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
36
(97)
33
(91)
33
(91)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
36
(97)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
Average low °C (°F) 18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
Record low °C (°F) 12
(54)
14
(57)
13
(55)
14
(57)
15
(59)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
14
(57)
12
(54)
12
(54)
Precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
61
(2.4)
130
(5.12)
175
(6.89)
147
(5.79)
74
(2.91)
46
(1.81)
86
(3.39)
91
(3.58)
97
(3.82)
122
(4.8)
99
(3.9)
1,174
(46.22)
Source: BBC Weather [7]

Demographics

Kampala has a diverse ethnic population, although the Baganda - the local ethnic group - make up over 60% of the greater Kampala region. The city's ethnic makeup has been defined by political and economic factors. During the rule of Milton Obote and Idi Amin, who were both from northern Uganda, a significant number of northern Ugandans moved into Kampala during the 1960s through to the 1980s. Most served in the armed forces and the police. Most settled around the areas where the Military and Police barracks were located - Naguru, Bugolobi and Mbuya. With the overthrow of Milton Obote in 1986, many northern Ugandans left the city. At the same time a large number of western Ugandans, particularly the Banyankole, moved into the city, reflecting the large proportion of western Ugandans in the new government of Yoweri Museveni.[8]

The mismanagement of Uganda's economy during the 1970s and 1980s meant that there were fewer employment opportunities outside Kampala. This encouraged many people from around the country to move into the city, and most have not moved back to their home districts after the revitalization of the economy in the 1990s and 2000s.

Inter-tribal marriage in Uganda is still rare, and although many Kampala residents have been born and bred in the city they still define themselves by their tribal roots. This is more evident in the suburbs of the city, where local languages are spoken widely alongside English, Swahili and Luganda. Apart from the Baganda and Banyankole, other large ethnic groups include the Basoga, Bafumbira, Batoro, Bakiga, Alur, Bagisu, Banyoro, Iteso and Acholi[9].

Economy

Air Uganda has its head office in Kampala.[10] Since assuming power in early 1986, Museveni's government has taken important steps toward economic rehabilitation. The country's infrastructure—notably its transport and communications systems which were destroyed by war and neglect—is being rebuilt. Recognizing the need for increased external support, Uganda negotiated a policy framework paper with the IMF and the World Bank in 1987. It subsequently began implementing economic policies designed to restore price stability and sustainable balance of payments, improve capacity utilization, rehabilitate infrastructure, restore producer incentives through proper price policies, and improve resource mobilization and allocation in the public sector. These policies produced positive results. Inflation, which ran at 240% in 1987 and 42% in June 1992, was 5.4% for fiscal year 1995-96 and 7.3% in 2003.

Investment as a percentage of GDP was estimated at 20.9% in 2002 compared to 13.7% in 1999. Private sector investment, largely financed by private transfers from abroad, was 14.9% of GDP in 2002. Gross national savings as a percentage of GDP was estimated at 5.5% in 2002. The Ugandan Government has also worked with donor countries to reschedule or cancel substantial portions of the country's external debts.

Uganda is a member of the WTO.

Population

The national census in 2002 estimated the population of the city at 1,189,142. The Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) estimated the population of Kampala at 1,420,200 in 2008. In 2011, UBOS estimated the mid-year population of the city at 1,659,600. it is estimated to be 1.6 million people.[11] The population of the city is Christian, Moslem, Methodist and African religious beliefs. Anglicans are the majority (65%). New Moslem are about 10% of the religiuos population of Kampala.[12]

Photos

Skyline with Mengo Hill, with Gaddafi Mosque.
Kampala viewed from the Gadafi Mosque

References

  1. Ms. Jennifer Musisi Semakula Appointed First Ever Executive Director of Kampala City
  2. New African, November 2007
  3. Ahmadiyya Muslim Mosques Around the World, pg. 112
  4. "Kampala Bus Project Planned". Newvision.co.ug. 2007-05-28. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  5. "Boda bodas leading cause of hospital casualties". Newvision.co.ug. 2008-08-24. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  6. "Road Service Fees are Planned". Newvision.co.ug. 2007-01-14. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  7. "Average Conditions Kampala, Uganda". BBC Weather. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
  8. Jones, Ben (2009-04-02). "Government is dominated by people from Western Uganda". Guardian. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  9. Ethnic Groups of Uganda
  10. "Air Uganda increases flights to Dar." New Vision. Monday 23 February 2009. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
  11. 2011 Estimated Populations of Ugandan Cities And Towns
  12. "2002 and 2008 Population Estimates for Kampala". Citypopulation.de. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2010-06-30.

External links

Coordinates: 00°18′49″N 32°34′52″E / 0.31361°N 32.58111°E / 0.31361; 32.58111

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