Muammar Muhammad al-Gaddafi, commonly referred to as Colonel Gaddafi, has been the ruler of Libya since a military coup on 1 September 1969, when he overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic. His 42 years in power make him one of the longest-serving rulers in history. Gaddafi renamed the Libyan Arab Republic to Jamahiriya in 1977, based on his socialist and nationalist political philosophy published in The Green Book. In 1979, he relinquished the title of prime minister, and was thereafter called "The Brother Leader" or "The Guide" in Libya's Socialist Revolution.
- Salak, Kira. "National Geographic article about Libya". National Geographic Adventure.
- Charles Féraud, "Annales Tripolitaines", the Arabic version named "Al Hawliyat Al Libiya", translated to Arabic by Mohammed Abdel Karim El Wafi, Dar el Ferjani, Tripoli, Libya, vol. 3, p.797.
- Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2010, p. 279 n. 2
- Background Notes, (November 2005) "Libya – History", United States Department of State. Retrieved on 14 July 2006.