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Russia', officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation[1] (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia.[2] It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the US state of Alaska by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the eighth most populous nation with 143 million people.[3] It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning nine time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources[4] and is the second largest oil producer[5] and second largest natural gas producer[6] globally. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water.[7]


  1. "The names Russian Federation and Russia shall be equal". "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 1). Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  2. "Russia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года[[Category:Articles containing Russian-language text]] (Information on the final results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved February 9, 2012. no-break space character in |accessdate= at position 9 (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help); URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  4. "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia". Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  5. "CIA - The World Factbook". Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia-gas
  7. Library of Congress. "Topography and drainage". Retrieved 26 Dec. 2007. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)