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Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, later Lord Lugard (lew-GAHD), was the son of Frederic Grueber Lugard and Mary Jane Howard, both children of clergymen who had become missionaries to India. Returning with his mother and sisters to England in 1863, Lugard’s early, deep religious convictions were tested by his mother’s death in 1864. His schooling at Rossall in Lancashire was not entirely successful. He was a poor scholar and received constant punishment for his violation of school rules. Failing the India Civil Service examination, Lugard passed the army examination in 1877 and entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst.