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Sudan, in northeast Afrika, is the largest country on the continent, measuring about one-fourth the size of the United States. Its neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic on the west, Egypt and Libya on the north, Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, and Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo on the south. The Red Sea washes about 500 mi of the eastern coast. It is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders.

Republic of Sudan

Republic of Sudan (English)
جمهورية السودان‎ (Arabic)
Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān
Motto: "Victory is Ours"
Anthem: "We are the Soldiers of God, the Soldiers of the Motherland"
Location of  Sudan  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Sudan  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)  —  [Legend]

Largest city Omdurman
Official languages Arabic, English
Recognised regional languages Nubian, Beja, Fur, Zaghawa
Demonym Sudanese
Government Presidential Federal republic
 -  President Omar al Bashir
 -  Vice President Bakri Hassan Saleh
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Unification of Sudan (North and South) 1955 
 -  Declared and recognized 1 January 1956 
 -  Republic declared 1 January 1956 
 -  Total 1,886,068 km2 (16th)
 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.4
 -  2015 estimate 40,235,000 [1] (35th)
 -  Density 16.4/km2 (71st)
42.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $70.0 billion [2]
 -  Per capita $4,521
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $267.779 billion[2]
 -  Per capita $1,603
Gini (2009)35.3
HDI (2010)Increase 0.423[3]
Error: Invalid HDI value · 142nd
Currency Sudanese Pound (SDG)
Time zone EAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Calling code +249
Internet TLD .sd
1The GDP estimate is as of 2014 provided by IMF; the total and per capita ranks are however based on 2014 GDP figures and new population figures for Sudan. 2Arabic language is the official language of Sudan, but is a multilingual nation with 160+ local indigenous languages [4]


Sudan is the crossroads between Kemet (Egypt), the Arabian Peninsula, Western and Southern Afrika. Sudanese history stretches back several centuries. As part of the wider Nile Civilization, Sudan is the homeland of the Kushite, Nubian, Merotic, Napatan, Kerma, Kemetic and kingdoms and empires. The first of the kingdoms to emerge was the Kushite Empire covering Sudan, Ethiopia and modern day Eritrea. Kush predates Dynastic Kemet by 2000 years old and was already "ancient" when the First Dynasty under Narmer emerged.


Sudan is a multiethnic and multicultural country with an ancient history going back 4,000 years. As formerly the largest country in Afrika, Sudan has always been home to diverse arts, traditions and languages. Each region of Sudan has its own unique local culture and food. Sham al Nassim (Spring Festival), Easter and Christmas are celebrated in Sudan. It is reflected strongly in music and Sudanese Arabic. Following Islamic tradition, many Sudanese participate in Islamic holidays Prophet Muhammad's birthday known as Mawlid, Ramadan, Eid al fitr, Eid al adha and perform the Hajj which is nearby in Mecca and Madina, Saudi Arabia. Sufi Islam is popular across Sudan even surpassing the "official" Sunni Muslim status. Sufi brotherhoods Sammaniya and have thousands of members. Every Friday, Sufis perform zikr at the Hamid el Nil Mosque in Omdurman, the largest city in Sudan. In the village of Kadabas hosts one of the largest Sufi festivals in the country drawing travellers from across Sudan. There is also a traveling national cultural festival that highlights the various ethnic groups around Sudan.

Arab identity

Despite its diversity, Sudan is seen as an Arab and Islamic country. When Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser promoted Pan Arabism in the early 1950s, Sudan was one of the first countries to join his rallying call and promote Arab nationalism in Sudan. Since independence, the Government of Sudan in Khartoum has been on a campaign of Pan Arabism and Arabization in Darfur, Nuba Mountains and Beja areas of Port Sudan and Red Sea state. Each of these regions have defended and protected their unique local and indigenous identities even under Ottoman and British colonial rule. Sudan has followed Algeria and Morocco in Arabizing its education system, relying on the Arabic language as the main lingua franca outside of English. There are no known language policies to protect the indigenous and multiple languages although many such as Nubian, Beja, Zaghawa, Nuba languages are recognized as national languages. Whereas Arab identity was historically based on being able to speak Arabic regardless of ethncity, the government has turned it into being the all encompassing ethnic identity of Sudan. Afro Arabs have existed for thousdands of years and predate Islam. They are not ethnically mixed between indigenous Sudanese and Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula. It was the strict interpretation of Arab identity against a diverse Sudanese identity and culture that led to two civil wars and South Sudan's independence. Despite the consequences, the Sudanese government continues to insist that Sudan has a sole Arab identity. This continues to be debated and criticized in Sudanese society especially by marginalized groups as it shares similiar Afrikan roots, culture, history and arts with modern day Southern Egypt. There are Sudanese living in Egypt particulary the Hala'ib Triangle.


Just wanted to add that they are saying that Ethiopia is Not right across the Nile and they lie constantly about Kemet yet they will never leave Kemet alone,because it is the Mecca of Information and Technology we were brought here and our culture was stolen against our wills. Yet from the Nile River we were brought to the US and the world about. because little do we realize that Slavery is an excuse of Ignorance and Laziness, being Savages does not require much thought.

Today and many days gone by we are Unarmed and Stultified, yet it is only an appearance and is in no manner what it seems to be. Many of us are bound to nothingness, it is the instance of being and doing nothing an inculcated belief in the image of being no body and thinking that you are the ‘n’ word and if we are circumspect this is what we will find:

Melanin comes as the black creative energies of the Nile they still refer to it as the black soil without which the Nile would not provide its nutrients of life this is where it all began millenniums ago after the Glacier receded: they were there those of them who came from the 10 Islands of the middle near east there they came to Kemet for all their needs, they were at Tanis when Tanis was, as it still is being brought back to the surface, while they came from those Southern waters if the Mediterranean they traveled too from Europe and all those other Islands, there are 10 in all and then they’d turn east as the Mediterranean meets the Nile’s Delta to have their need’s fulfilled: Their dependence became greater than they could tolerate, whereas, they wanted to be who we were in those day and there is no way, no way that anyone from Europe or any of those other 10 Ten Islands of the near middle east could say: this is not truth because “they were creators Everlasting Greatness, of eternity, their Civilization and Constitutions of Life, are eternal…” everyone from all that anyone from Europe or any of those other 10 Ten Islands of the near middle east is that Kemet is the Place to Go, and t today they are many who rehouse or re-home rather to the Mecca of Information:

Meanwhile truth is that those who RULE America/Kemet/Cairo/Egypt today are culture thieves; they stole our culture and the things that we’ve created all of what inhabit the lands west and north. Many they were who ran in those directions to escape the sabotage’s time and time again they’d come back because each one of those Seafarers wanted to be Kemetian. Any one of the 10 Islands wanted to find independence from Kemet they wanted to be Kemetian, not who they were, instead they wish to become as the Ones of Sun, or the Ones of Sun, without having hue.

How is it then, that there is really only one of us, on earth who has hue, and they are here too we hear the one who has no hue telling us with hue that we are” sub hue man”, yet he has no hue. He is not one of the ones of Sun. He has won a war for melanin to ago, and as those fallen Angel’s from above came down to become one of Sun.

3/3BC ©2016



Sudan is divided into twenty-five states or wilayats States_of_Sudan which are further sub-divided into 774. The plethora of states, of which there were only three at independence, reflect the country's tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all levels of government.

Population of major cities

City Population
Omdurman 2,970,099
Khartoum 2,090,001
Khartoum Bahri 1,626,638
Nyala 532,183
Port Sudan 474,373
Kassala 419,031
El Obeid 410,941
Kosti 364,331

Key sectors

Science and technology


Sudan has a large population at 39 million. Unlike its neighbor Egypt, the population not only lives along the Nile but also in Western Sudan made up of Darfur and Eastern Sudan in the port city of Port Sudan and Kassala. There are 600 ethnic groups that speak Arabic as a lingua franca and have their own languages. Sudanese Arabs make up over half of the population. They are made up of various groups including Ja'alin, Shaigya, Dongolawi, Baggara (who are a majority of the Darfuri Arabs in Darfur and Chad) Shukria, Guhayna, Beni Amer, Rashida, Hassania, Jaafari, Husunabi, Batahi, Selhabi, Kawhli, Aselati, Bedouins. The Beja people (Ababda, Hadendowa, Bisharin), the descendants of the Medjay from Ancient Kemet and Sudan live in Port Sudan and Red Sea state. The second ethnic group are the Nubians, the descendants of Ancient Nubia and Kushites. The Nubians break themselves down into their own groups such as Dongola, Mahas, Nobiin. In Darfur are the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa and Baggara. There is also smaller Darfuri groups. The Fallata people commonly known as the Fulani or Fula people in the rest of Afrika, live in Western Sudan in Darfur. Among them are the Daju people who originally lived in the Nile Valley but were forced out of the Kingdom of Moroe by the Axumite king Izana in the 4th century. The Daju people are some of the oldest people in Darfur and responsible for the ancient Daju Kingdom. The Tunjur displced the Daju kingdom in Darfur originally have become the dominate class in Darfur. The Nuban or Nuba people who are not related to the Nubian people in Northern Sudan live in the Nuba Mountains and the Ingassina people in the Ingassina Hills. The Nuba in the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile state are related to neighboring South Sudanese along the border with Sudan and South Sudan. The name Nuba is a short term for the multiple indigenous peoples that live in the mountains such as the Moro, Kaolib, Heiban, Talodi, etc. In [Sennar], Sudan near Wad Madani is home to the Funjawia (Funj) people known for the Sultanate of Funj or the Blue Sultanate as it's locally known in Sudan.

Traditional beliefs

Alongside the main religious sect is the traditional belief system that without contradicting civil law, manages to also govern ethics and morality amongst much of the population.


United Nations World Population Prospects. Retrieved 2011-11-03. Missing or empty |title= (help)
"Sudan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
"Human Development Report 2009." Human development index trends: Table G" (PDF). The United Nations. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
Languages of Sudan. Retrieved 2015-10-06.


  1. (PDF). United Nations World Population Prospects Retrieved 2011-11-03. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Sudan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-05-06.
  3. "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G" (PDF). The United Nations. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
  4. "Languages of Sudan". Retrieved 2015-10-06. External link in |publisher= (help)
  5. Berry, Tariq. (2007) The Unknown Arabs. Morocco. Afrikan World Books.