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The Art of War
Bamboo book - binding - UCR.jpg
The beginning of The Art of War, in a "classical" bamboo book from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
AuthorSun Tzu
Genremilitary treatise
Publication date
unknown, ca. 6th century BC
Media typeText: Full Text
The Art of War
Traditional Chinese 孫子兵法
Simplified Chinese 孙子兵法
Hanyu Pinyin Sūnzĭ Bīngfǎ
Literal meaning Sun Tzu's Military Principles

The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that is attributed to Sun Tzu (also referred to as "Sunzi" and "Sun Wu"), a military strategist of the State of Wu who was active in the late-sixth century BC, during the late Spring and Autumn period. (Some scholars believe that the Art of War was not completed until the subsequent Warring States period.[1]) Composed of 13 chapters, each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare, it is said to be the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time, and is still read for its military insights.

The Art of War is one of the oldest and most successful books on military strategy in the world. It has been the most famous and influential of China's Seven Military Classics: "for the last two thousand years it remained the most important military treatise in Asia, where even the common people knew it by name."[2] It has had an influence on Eastern military thinking, business tactics, and beyond.

Sun Tzu emphasized the importance of positioning in military strategy, and that the decision to position an army must be based on both objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective beliefs of other, competitive actors in that environment. He thought that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through an established list, but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. Planning works in a controlled environment, but in a changing environment, competing plans collide, creating unexpected situations.

The book was first translated into the French language in 1772 by French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, and into English by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905. Leaders as diverse as Mao Zedong, General Vo Nguyen Giap, Baron Antoine-Henri Jomini, General Douglas MacArthur, Napoleon, and certain members of the Nazi High Command have claimed to have drawn inspiration from the work. The Art of War has also been applied to business and managerial strategies.[3][4][5]

The 13 chapters

The Art of War is divided into 13 chapters (or Piān), and the collection is referred to as being one Chuán ("whole" or alternatively "chronicle"). As different translations have used differing titles for each chapter, a selection appears below.

Table of Contents

Art of War

  1. Section I: Laying Plans
  2. Section II: Waging War
  3. Section III: Attack by Stratagem
  4. Section IV: Tactical Dispositions
  5. Section V: Energy
  6. Section VI: Weak Points and Strong
  7. Section VII: Maneuvering
  8. Section VIII: Variation in Tactics
  9. Section IX: The Army on the March
  10. Section X: Terrain
  11. Section XI: The Nine Situations
  12. Section XII: The Attack by Fire
  13. Section XIII: The Use of Spies

Chapter summary

  1. Laying Plans/The Calculations explores the five fundamental factors (the Way, seasons, terrain, leadership, and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state, and must not be commenced without due consideration.
  2. Waging War/The Challenge explains how to understand the economy of warfare, and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly. This section advises that successful military campaigns require limiting the cost of competition and conflict.
  3. Attack by Stratagem/The Plan of Attack defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and discusses the five factors that are needed to succeed in any war. In order of importance, these critical factors are: Attack, Strategy, Alliances, Army, and Cities.
  4. Tactical Dispositions/Positioning explains the importance of defending existing positions until a commander is capable of advancing from those positions in safety. It teaches commanders the importance of recognizing strategic opportunities, and teaches not to create opportunities for the enemy.
  5. Energy/Directing explains the use of creativity and timing in building an army's momentum.
  6. Weak Points & Strong/Illusion and Reality explains how an army's opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of the enemy in a given area.
  7. Maneuvering/Engaging The Force explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon the commander.
  8. Variation in Tactics/The Nine Variations focuses on the need for flexibility in an army's responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.
  9. The Army on the March/Moving The Force describes the different situations in which an army finds itself as it moves through new enemy territories, and how to respond to these situations. Much of this section focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.
  10. Terrain/Situational Positioning looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers, and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offer certain advantages and disadvantages.
  11. The Nine Situations/Nine Terrains describes the nine common situations (or stages) in a campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus that a commander will need in order to successfully navigate them.
  12. The Attack by Fire/Fiery Attack explains the general use of weapons and the specific use of the environment as a weapon. This section examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack, and the appropriate responses to such attacks.
  13. The Use of Spies/The Use of Intelligence focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, and specifies the five types of intelligence sources and how to best manage each of them.


Traditionalist Viewpoint

Traditionalist scholars attribute this book to the historical Sun Wu, who is recorded in both the Shiji and the Spring and Autumn Annals as having been active in Wu around the end of the sixth century BC, beginning in 512 BC. The traditional interpretation concludes that the text should therefore date from this period, and should directly reflect the tactics and strategies used and created by Sun Wu. The traditionalist approach assumes that only very minor revision may have occurred shortly after Sunzi's death, in the early fifth century BC, as the body of his writings may have needed to be compiled in order to form the complete, modern text.[6]

The textual support for the traditionalist view is that several of the oldest of the Seven Military Classics share a focus on specific literary concepts (such as terrain classifications) which traditionalist scholars assume were created by Sunzi. The Art of War also shares several entire phraises in common with the other Military Classics, implying that other texts borrowed from the Art of War, and/or that the Art of War borrowed from other texts. According to traditionalist scholars, the fact that the Art of War was the most widely reproduced and circulated military text of the Warring States period indicates that any textual borrowing between military texts must have been exclusively from the Art of War to other texts, and not vice versa.[7] (The classical texts which most similarly reflect Sunzi's terms and phraisology are the Wei Liaozi and Sun Bin's Art of War.)[8]

Late Imperial Chinese Criticism

Skeptics to the traditionalist view within China have abounded since at least the time of the Song dynasty. Some, following Du Fu, accused the Art of War's first commentator, Cao Cao, of butchering the text. The criticisms of Cao Cao were based on a Book of Han bibliographical notation of a work composed of eighty two sections that was attributed to Sunzi. The description of a work of Sunzi composed of eighty-two sections contrasts with the Shiji's description of the Art of War as having thirteen sections (the current number). Others doubted Sunzi's historical existance, and/or claimed that the work must be a later forgery. Much of the Art of War's historical condemnation within China has been due to its realistic approach to warcraft: it advocates utilizing spies and deception. The advocacy of dishonest methods contradicted perceived Confucian values, making it a target of Confucian literati throughout later Chinese history. According to later Confucian scholars, Sun Wu's historical existence was accordingly a late fabrication, unworthy of consideration except by the morally reprehensible.[9]

Modern Archaeological Findings

The discovery in 1972 of a nearly-complete Han dynasty copy of the Art of War from a tomb, which is almost completely identical to modern editions, proves conclusively that the Art of War had achieved its current form by at least the early Han dynasty, and findings of less-complete copies dated earlier support the view that it existed in roughly its current form by at least the time of the mid-late Warring States. Because the archaeological evidence proves that the Art of War existed in its present form by the early Han dynasty, the Han dynasty record of a work of eighty-two sections attributed to Sunzi is assumed by modern historians to be either a mistake, or a lost work combining the existing Art of War with biographical and dialectical material. Some modern scholars suggest that the Art of War must have existed in thirteen sections before Sunzi met the King of Wu, since the king mentions the number thirteen in the Shiji's description of their meeting.[10]

Was the Art of War Created in the Late Warring States?

Without questioning that the Art of War has existed in roughly its current form since at least the late Warring States period, the traditionalist interpretation of the text's history is challenged by modern historians. Even if the possibility of later revisions is disregarded, the traditionalist interpretation that Sunzi created the Art of War ex nihilo, and that all other military scholars must have copied and borrowed from him, disregards the likelihood of any previous formal or literary tradition of tactical studies, despite the historical existence of over 2000 years of Chinese warfare and tactical development before 500 BC. Because it is unlikely that Sunzi effectively created China's entire body of tactical studies, "basic concepts and common passages seem to argue in favor of a comprehensive military tradition and evolving expertise, rather than creation ex nihilo."[11]

One modern alternative to the traditionalist theory states that the Art of War achieved its current form by the mid-to-late Warring States (the fourth-to-third century BC), centuries after the historical Sun Wu's death. This interpretation is based on disparities between the Art of War's tactics and the historical conditions of warfare in the late Spring and Autumn period (the late sixth century BC). Examples of warfare described in the Art of War which did not occur until the Warring States period include: the mobilization of one thousand chariots and 100,000 soldiers for a single battle; protracted sieges (cities were small, weakly fortified, economically and strategically unimportant centers in the Spring and Autumn period); the existence of military officers as a distinct subclass of nobility; deference of rulers' right to command armies to these officers; the advanced and detailed use of spies and unorthodox tactics (never emphasized at all in the Spring and Autumn period); and, the extensive emphasis on infantry speed and mobility, rather than chariot warfare. Because the conditions and tactics advocated in the Art of War are historically anachronistic to the historical Sun Wu's time, it is possible that the Art of War was created in the mid-to-late Warring States period.[12]

Was It an Early Warring States Creation?

A view that mediates between the traditionalist interpretation, that the historical Sun Wu was the only contributor to the Art of War, and the most opposite possible interpretation, that the Art of War was created in the mid-late Warring States period, centuries after the historical Sun Wu's death, is that the core of the text was created by Sun Wu and underwent a period of revision before achieving roughly its current form within a century of Sun Wu's death (in the last half of the fifth-century BC). "It seems likely that the historical figure (of Sun Wu) existed, and that he not only served as a strategist and possibly a general, but also composed the core of the book that bears his name. Thereafter, the essential teachings were probably transmitted within the family or a close-knit school of disciples, being improved and revised with the passing decades while gradually gaining wider dissemination." [13] The view that the Art of War achieved roughly its current form by the late fifth-century BC is supported by the recovery of the oldest existing fragments of the Art of War, and by the analysis of the prose of the Art of War, which is similar to other texts dated more definitively to the late fifth-century BC (i.e. Mozi), but dissimilar either to earlier (i.e. the Analects) or later (i.e. Xunzi) literature from roughly the same period.[14] This theory accounts both for the historical record attributing the Art of War to Sun Wu, and for the description of tactics anachronistic to Sun Wu's time within the Art of War.

Some scholars have raised questions regarding the authenticity of the list of virtues ascribed to the commander in Section I, ss.9. It has been urged that this section was added posthumously to align The Art of War with the five cardinal virtues of Confucianism. This is based on the contention that sincerity stands opposed to the deception in war that the text discusses.[15][unreliable source?] Because archeological recoveries of the text prove that the text existed in roughly its present form by the early Han dynasty (when Confucianism was first officially adopted as the state philosophy), because archeological recoveries make it very probable that the Art of War existed in roughly its present form by (at the latest) the mid-late Warring States period, and because Confucian scholars in late Chinese history did not recognize the Art of War as promoting Confucian values,[16] it is unlikely that the modern text was directly altered by early Confucian scholars to reflect Confucian values. If the modern text of the Art of War reflects contrasting interpretations of the value in chivalry in warfare, the existence of these differing interpretations within the text supports the theory that the core of the Art of War was created by a figure (i.e. the historical Sun Wu) who existed at a time when chivalry was more highly valued (i.e. the Spring and Autumn period), and that the text was amended by his followers to reflect the realities of warfare in a subsequent, distinctly un-chivalric period (i.e. the Warring States period).


A portion of The Art of War in Tangut script.

Before the bamboo scroll version was discovered by archaeologists in April 1972, a commonly cited version of The Art of War was the Annotation of Sun Tzu's Strategies by Cao Cao, the founder of the Kingdom of Wei. In the preface, he wrote that previous annotations were not focused on the essential ideas. Other annotations cited in official history books include Shen You's (176-204) Sun Tzu's Military Strategy, Jia Xu's Copy of Sun Tzu's Military Strategy, Cao Cao and Wang Ling's Sun Tzu's Military Strategy.[17]

The Book of Sui documented seven books named after Sun Tzu. An annotation by Du Mu also includes Cao Cao's annotation. Li Jing's The Art of War is said to be a revision of Master Sun's strategies. Annotations by Cao Cao, Du Mu and Li Quan were translated into the Tangut language before AD 1040. A book named Ten Schools of The Art of War Annotations was published before AD 1161.[citation needed]

After the movable type printer was invented, The Art of War (with Cao Cao's annotations) was published in a military textbook along with six other strategy books, collectively known as the Seven Military Classics (武經七書 / 武经七书).

As a required reading military textbook since the Song Dynasty, the Seven Military Classics have had many annotations. More than 30 differently annotated versions of these books exist today.

The two most common traditional Chinese versions of the Art of War, (the Complete Specialist Focus and Military Bible versions) were the sources for early translation into English and other languages. It was not until the 1970s that these works were compiled with more recent archeological discoveries into a single more complete version in Taipei, Taiwan. The resulting work is known as the Complete Version of Sun Tzu's Art of War. The National Defense Research Investigation Office has been the source for more recent and complete translations.[citation needed]


Verses from the book occur in modern daily Chinese idioms and phrases, such as the last verse of Chapter 3:

So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you can win a hundred battles without a single loss.
If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you may win or may lose.
If you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you will always endanger yourself.

This has been more tersely interpreted and condensed into the modern proverb:

If you know both yourself and your enemy, you can win a hundred battles without a single loss.

This translation of this sentence 'If you know both sides, you will win a hundred times in one hundred battles. (知己知彼,百戰百勝)' is incorrect. The word '殆' in Chinese means 'danger'. '百' in this sentence is better interpreted as 'numerous' rather than 'hundred'.

However, Master Sun knew the dangers of overconfidence in strategy. '知己知彼,百戰百勝' ('If you know both sides, you will win a hundred times in one hundred battles') is untrue since in the beginning paragraph of chapter four, Master Sun wrote 'Hence, we can well predict who would win but there is no strategy guaranteeing winning (故曰: 勝可知,而不可為。)'.

Similar verses have also been borrowed—in a manner construing skillfulness as victory "without fighting" -- for example:

Therefore one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the most skillful. Seizing the enemy without fighting is the most skillful.

Another quotation (chapter 1, paragraph 18) states:

All warfare is based on deception.

or, alternatively:

Never will those who wage war tire of deception.

Military applications

In many East Asian countries, The Art of War was part of the syllabus for potential candidates of military service examinations. Various translations are available.

During the Sengoku era in Japan, a daimyo named Takeda Shingen (1521–1573) is said to have become almost invincible in all battles without relying on guns, because he studied The Art of War.[18] The book even gave him the inspiration for his famous battle standard "Fūrinkazan" (Wind, Forest, Fire and Mountain), meaning fast as the wind, silent as a forest, ferocious as fire and immovable as a mountain.[19]

The translator Samuel B. Griffith offers a chapter on "Sun Tzu and Mao Tse-Tung" where The Art of War is cited as influencing Mao's On Guerrilla Warfare, On the Protracted War, and Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War and includes Mao's quote: "We must not belittle the saying in the book of Sun Wu Tzu, the great military expert of ancient China, 'Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a thousand battles without disaster.'"[20]

During the Vietnam War, some Vietcong officers studied The Art of War, and reportedly could recite entire passages from memory.

General Vo Nguyen Giap successfully implemented tactics described in The Art of War during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu ending major French involvement in Indochina and leading to the accords which partitioned Vietnam into North and South. General Vo, later the military mastermind behind victories over American forces in Vietnam, was an avid student and practitioner of Sun Tzu’s ideas. America's defeat there, more than any other event, brought Sun Tzu to the attention of leaders of American military theory.[21][22]

The Department of the Army in the United States, through its Command and General Staff College, has directed all units to maintain libraries within their respective headquarters for the continuing education of personnel in the art of war. The Art of War is mentioned as an example of works to be maintained at each individual unit, and staff duty officers are obliged to prepare short papers for presentation to other officers on their readings.[23]

The Art of War is listed on the Marine Corps Professional Reading Program (formerly known as the Commandant's Reading List). It is recommended reading for all United States Military Intelligence personnel and is required reading for all CIA officers.[24]

Application outside the military

The Art of War has been applied to many fields well outside of the military. Much of the text is about how to fight wars without actually having to do battle: it gives tips on how to outsmart one's opponent so that physical battle is not necessary. As such, it has found application as a training guide for many competitive endeavors that do not involve actual combat.

There are business books applying its lessons to "office politics" and corporate strategy.[25][26][27] Many Japanese companies make the book required reading for their key executives.[28] The book is also popular among Western business management, who have turned to it for inspiration and advice on how to succeed in competitive business situations. It has also been applied to the field of education.[29]

The Art of War has been the subject of various law books[30][31] and legal articles on the trial process, including negotiation tactics[32][33] and trial strategy.[34][35][36][37][38][39]

The Art of War has also been applied in the world of sports. NFL coach Bill Belichick is known to have read the book and used its lessons to gain insights in preparing for games.[40]

Depiction in media


  • In 1996, a 13-episode TV series based on Sun Tzu's life story, titled Sun Wu (孫子兵法 - 孫武兵聖傳奇), was produced, starring Sun Yanjun as Sun Tzu.[41]
  • In 2008, producer Zhang Jizhong adapted Sun Tzu's life story into a 40-episode historical drama TV series titled Bing Sheng (兵聖; aka The Ultimate Master of War: Sun Tzu), starring Zhu Yawen as Sun Tzu.[42]

Sources and translations

  • Sun Tzu translated by Dr Han Hiong Tan (2001). Sun Zi's The Art of War. H H Tan Medical P/L. ISBN 0-9580067-0-9.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Lionel Giles (2005) [Translation first published 1910]. The Art of War by Sun Tzu - Special Edition. El Paso Norte Press. ISBN 0-9760726-9-6.
  • Sun Tzu translated by the Denma translation group (2001). The Art of War: the Denma translation. Shambhala Classics. ISBN 1-57062-904-8.
  • Sun-Tzu translated by Roger Ames (1993). The Art of Warfare. Random House. ISBN 0-345-36239-X.,
  • Sun Tzu edited by James Clavell (1983). The Art of War. Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-385-29216-3.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Ralph D. Sawyer (1994). The Art of War. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 1-56619-297-8.
  • Sun Tzu translated by John Minford (2002). The Art of War. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03156-9.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Yuan Shibing (1987). Sun Tzu's Art of War: The Modern Chinese Interpretation. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN 0-8069-6638-6.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Thomas Cleary (1991). The Art Of War. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-537-9.
  • Sun Tzu translated by J.H. Huang (1993). The Art of War: The New Translation. Quill William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-12400-3.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Samuel B. Griffith (1963). The Art of War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-501476-6.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Donald G. Krause (1995). The Art of War For Executives. Berkely Publishing Group (Under Perigee Books. ISBN 0-399-51902-5.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Stephen F. Kaufman (1996). The Art of War: The Definitive Interpretation of Sun Tzu's Classic Book of Strategy. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3080-0.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Prof. Chow-Hou WEE (2003). Sun Zi Art of War: An Illustrated Translation with Asian Perspectives and Insights. Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 0-13-100137-X.
  • Sun Tzu translated by Paul Brennan (2007). The Art of War for Martial Artists. Odos Books. 2007. ISBN 978-1-60402-416-6
  • Sun Tzu translated by Victor H. Mair (2007). The Art of War: Sun Zi's Military Methods. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13382-1
  • Sun Tzu (1988-05). The Art of Strategy. translated by R. L. Wing. Seattle, Washington: Main Street Books. ISBN 0-385-23784-7. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |origmonth=, |month=, |coauthors=, and |origdate= (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Sun Tzu (2003). The Art of War plus The Ancient Chinese Revealed. translated by Gary Gagliardi. Hillsborough, Washington: Clearbridge Publishing. ISBN 1-929194-42-0. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |origmonth=, |month=, |coauthors=, and |origdate= (help) Gagliardi's article about problems of translating the text.
  • Sun Tzu translated and annotated by Thomas Huynh and the Editors of (2008). The Art of War: Spirituality for Conflict. Skylight Paths Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59473-244-7
  • 'The Art of Electoral War': A liberal interpretion of Sun Tzu's The Art of War in the context of Indian electoral scene by Madhuker Upadhyay, Celebrated Indian Journalist and Author. (2004). ANA Publishers. ISBN 81-89015-01-X
  • Sun Tzu translated in Hindi by Eminent Indian Journalist and Author Madhuker Upadhyay (2001). 'Yudhkala'. ISBN 81-7778-041-7

Note that there is an error in the final sentence of Project Gutenberg's transcription of Lionel Giles' work. In the fragment "Spies are a most important element in war" the word "war" is transposed to "water".

See also


  1. Griffith, Illustrated Art of War, p. 17-18
  2. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 149.
  3. 'Art of War for Business Management Strategic Planning'
  4. Floyd, Raymond E.
  5. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 149.
  6. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. pp. 149-150.
  7. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 150.
  8. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 422.
  9. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. pp. 422-423.
  10. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 423.
  11. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 150.
  12. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 421.
  13. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. pp. 150-151.
  14. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 422.
  15. Iksvoklisov, Semaj "The Modern Art of War" (2010). pg 8.
  16. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. New York: Basic Books. 2007. p. 423.
  17. Giles, Lionel. "The Art of War by Sun Tzu Special Edition. El Paso Norte Press, 2007
  18. Griffith, pp. 172–173 ISBN 0-19-501476-6
  19. Furinkazan Archtectural Pavilion/北杜市
  20. Griffith, p. 50 ISBN 0-19-501476-6
  21. [1] Interview with Dr. William Duiker
  22. [2] Learning from Sun Tzu, Military Review, May–June 2003
  23. Army, U. S. (no date (1985?)). Military History and Professional Development. U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute. 85-CSI-21 85. Check date values in: |year= (help) The Art of War is mentioned for each unit's acquisition on page 18, "Military History Libraries for Duty Personnel"
  25. Sunzi; Michaelson, Gerald. "Sun Tzu: The Art of War for Managers; 50 Strategic Rules." Avon, MA: OH:Adams Media, 2001
  26. McNeilly, Mark. "Sun Tzu and the Art of Business : Six Strategic Principles for Managers. New York:Oxford University Press, 1996.
  27. Krause, Donald G. "The Art of War for Executives: Ancient Knowledge for Today's Business Professional." New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1995.
  28. Kammerer, Peter. "The Art of Negotiation." South China Morning Post (April 21, 2006) pg. 15
  29. Jeffrey, D. (2010) "A Teacher Diary Study to Apply Ancient Art of War Strategies to Professional Development" in The International Journal of Learning: Common Ground Publishing, USA, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp. 21 – 36
  30. Barnhizer, David. The Warrior Lawyer: Powerful Strategies for Winning Legal Battles (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Bridge Street Books, 1997)
  31. Harris, Paul. Warrior Lawyer (San Francisco, CA: Paul Harris (self-publication, 1991)
  32. Ashley, Fred T., “The Art of War, Litigation and Mediation”, Ashley Mediation Centers,
  33. St. Marie, Ronald M., “The Art of Litigation: Deception and Settlement- The Application of Sun Tzu's Ancient Strategies of War to the Law” Chan Law Group, 2002,
  34. Balch, Christopher D., “The Art of War and the Art of Trial Advocacy: Is There Common Ground?” (1991), 42 Mercer L. Rev. 861-873
  35. Beirne, Martin D. and Scott D. Marrs, “The Art of War and Public Relations: Strategies for Successful Litigation”)
  36. Gordon, Gary, J., “Slaying the Dragon: The Cross Examination of Expert Witnesses”, Rider Bennett LLP website)
  37. Pribetic, Antonin I., "The Trial Warrior: Applying Sun Tzu's The Art of War to Trial Advocacy" (April 21, 2007,
  38. Solomon, Samuel H., “The Art of War: Pursuing Electronic Evidence as Your Corporate Opportunity” Doar Litigation Consulting website article
  39. Wallo, William E., “Rambo in the Courtroom: Sometimes it Pays to be Confrontational”
  40. "Put crafty Belichick's patriot games down to the fine art of war". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-02-04. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  41. [3] (Chinese)
  42. Bing Sheng on (Chinese)

External links