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The term Black Chattelizaton Wars more fully encompasses what the the age of enslavement suffered by Black people.
 
The term Black Chattelizaton Wars more fully encompasses what the the age of enslavement suffered by Black people.
 
===Article Terminology===
 
 
Scholars use several different terms to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants.<ref>[[#Valentino2005FinalSolutions|Valentino (2005) ''Final solutions'']] p. 9: "Mass killing and Genocide. No generally accepted terminology exists to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants."</ref> The following have been used to describe mass killings by governments:
 
*'''[[Genocide]]''' — under the [[Genocide Convention]], the [[Genocide#Genocide as a crime|crime of genocide]] does not apply to the mass killing of political and social groups. Protection of political groups was eliminated from the UN resolution after a second vote, allegedly as a result of many states, including the United States during the Truman Administration, anticipating that the clause would apply unneeded limitations to their right to suppress internal disturbances.<ref>United Nations Treaty Collection: [http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide], STATUS AS AT: 01-10-2011 07:22:22 EDT</ref><ref name=Docker>John Docker, "[http://epress.anu.edu.au/apps/bookworm/view/Humanities+Research+Vol+XVI.+No.+2.+2010/5271/docker.xhtml Raphaël Lemkin, creator of the concept of genocide: a world history perspective]", ''Humanities Research'' 16(2), 2010.</ref><ref name="church-final-report">{{cite book|title=Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans - [[Church Committee]] final report|series=II|chapter=I. Introduction and Summary|page=10|chapter-url=http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/pdfs94th/94755_II.pdf|website=[[United States Senate]] website|publisher=[[United States Government]]|date=1976-04-26|accessdate=2014-07-15|archivedate=2014-04-18|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140418092233/http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/pdfs94th/94755_II.pdf|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
*'''[[Politicide]]''' — used to describe the killing of political or economic groups that would otherwise be covered by the Genocide Convention.<ref>[[Oxford English Dictionary]] in its entry for ''[http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/265482 politicide]'' notes the first usage as: 1968 Y. HARKABI Fedayeen Action & Arab Strategy 11/2 The Arabs' objective of destroying the state of Israel (what may be called a 'politicide') drives them to genocide.</ref> Grant Barrett uses the term "politicide" to describe the destruction of the apartheid system in South Africa. [[Baruch Kimmerling]] uses the term in his book Politicide: Sharon’s War Against the Palestinians and in various articles.
 
 
*'''[[Democide]]''' — [[R. J. Rummel]] revived the term, which includes genocide, politicide, and [[mass murder]], e.g. an example he cites is the actions [[Leopold II of Belgium]] in [[Congo Free State]].<ref name="RJR">[[R. J. Rummel]] [http://www.Hawaii.edu/powerkills/COMM.7.1.03.HTM Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"]</ref> Rummel has also termed the mass killings carried about the the US military as "genocide and democide."<ref name="RJRummel">[[R. J. Rummel]] [https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP13.HTM STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE Chapter 13 Death By American Bombing And Other Democide By R.J. Rummel]</ref> Frank Wayman and Atsushi Tago have shown the significance of terminology in that, depending on the use of [[democide]] (generalised state-sponsored killing) or [[politicide]] (eliminating groups who are politically opposed) as the criterion for inclusion in a data-set, statistical analyses seeking to establish a connection between mass killings can produce very different results, including the significance or otherwise of regime type.{{Page needed|date=July 2010}}<ref name="Tago">{{Cite journal|first1=FW|last1=Wayman|first2=A|last2=Tago|title=Explaining the onset of mass killing, 1949–87|journal=Journal of Peace Research Online|year=2009|pages=1–17}}</ref>
 
*'''Crime against humanity''' — has been used by the [[United Nations General Assembly]] to describe systematic persecution such as occurred during the [[South African]] [[apartheid]] regime government.<ref>[http://www.anc.org.za/un/uncrime.htm International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid] dopted and opened for signature, ratification by General Assembly resolution 3068 (XXVIII) of 30 November 1973. Entry into force 18 July 1976, in accordance with article X (10)</ref>
 
*'''Imperialism''' — a type of advocacy of empire. Its name originated from the Latin word "imperium", meaning to rule over large territories. Imperialism is "a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means".<ref name="oxforddictionaries.com">Oxford Dictionaries: [http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/imperialism id=5gCHckKszz0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=dictionary+of+human+geography&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Nah1UdLTNYfgqAHcgoCQDg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA The Dictionary of Human Geography]'' (5th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 373. ISBN 978-1-4051-3288-6''</ref> Imperialism has greatly shaped the contemporary world.<ref>Mary Gallaher, et al. ''Key concepts in political geography'' (Sage, 2009).</ref> The term imperialism has been applied to Western (and Japanese) political and economic dominance especially in Asia and Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries.<ref name="Edward Said 1994. P. 9">Edward W. Said. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage Publishers, 1994. P. 9.</ref>
 
*'''Mass killing''' — refers to mass murder by a state. The concept of state-sponsored mass murder covers a range of potential killings. It is defined as the intentional and indiscriminate murder of a large number of people by government agents. Examples of state-sponsored mass murder include: Deliberate massacres of captives or civilians during wartime by the state's military forces, the murder of 24 unarmed villagers by British troops in the [[Batang Kali massacre]] during the [[Malayan Emergency]], the murder of Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in the [[My Lai Massacr]]e during the [[Vietnam War]], and in recent times, the hotly disputed, mass murder of civilian Sri Lankan Lee Tamils, by way of tactical shelling, by the Sri Lankan army during the [[Sri Lankan Civil War]].
 
 
 
*'''Capitalist holocaust''' — Peter Cohen has referred to the mass killings collectively as "a massive machine of destruction that is literally waging war on humanity" in his book titled "The Capitalist Holocaust."<ref name="Cohen">{{Cite book| last1 = Cohen | first1 = Peter | title = The Capitalist Holocaust |date = December 2013| url = https://thecapitalistholocaust.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/10/ | accessdate = August 10, 2015 | postscript = <!--None--> }}</ref> The term "Capitalist Holocaust" has also been used by former British member of Parliament Geoge Galloway.
 
*'''Death Squad''' — an armed group that conducts [[extrajudicial killing]]s or [[forced disappearance]]s of persons for the purposes of [[political repression]], [[genocide]], or [[revolutionary terror]]. These killings are often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities.<ref>"Death Squads in Global Perspective: Murder with Deniability", Campbell and Brenner, eds.</ref><ref>''El Salvador's Decade of Terror'', Americas Watch, Human Rights Watch Books, Yale University Press,1991,21</ref> Death squads may have the support of domestic or foreign governments (see [[state terrorism]]). They may comprise a [[secret police]] force, [[paramilitary]] groups, government soldiers, policemen, or combinations thereof. They may also be organized as [[Vigilantism|vigilantes]].
 
 
  
 
==Arab Theatre (680ce - Present)==
 
==Arab Theatre (680ce - Present)==
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Michael Wood asserts that the indigenous peoples were not considered to be human beings and that the colonisers was shaped by "centuries of Ethnocentrism, and Christian monotheism, which espoused one truth, one time and version of reality."<ref>Conquistadors, Michael Wood, p. 20, BBC Publications, 2000</ref>
 
Michael Wood asserts that the indigenous peoples were not considered to be human beings and that the colonisers was shaped by "centuries of Ethnocentrism, and Christian monotheism, which espoused one truth, one time and version of reality."<ref>Conquistadors, Michael Wood, p. 20, BBC Publications, 2000</ref>
 
==Mass Killings==
 
 
=== Bengal famine of 1770 ===
 
The [[Great Bengal famine of 1770|Bengal famine of 1770]] is estimated to have caused the death of around 10,000,000 people, reducing the population to around thirty million in Bengal. It was caused by the widespread cultivation of opium (forced upon local farmers by the British East India Company as part of its strategy to illegally export it to China) in place of local food crops, resulting in a shortage of grain for local people in Bengal.
 
 
=== Bengal famine of 1943 ===
 
3-4 million killed.
 
{{Quote|text = Churchill was both indifferent to the Indian plight and even mocked the millions suffering, chuckling over the culling of a population that bred 'like rabbits.' Leopold Amery... vented in his private diaries, writing 'on the subject of India, Winston is not quite sane' and that he didn't 'see much difference between his outlook and Hitler's.'... Churchill was one of a coterie of imperial rulers who worked to create sectarian fissures within India's independence movement between Indian Hindus and Muslims, which led to the brutal partition of India when the former colony finally did win its freedom in 1947. Millions died or were displaced in an orgy of bloodshed.
 
<ref>http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2031992,00.html</ref>}}
 
 
 
=== Colonial El Niño Famines (1876-1900) ===
 
 
TOTAL deaths: 31,700,000 to 61,300,000
 
 
Book source: Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (2001)
 
 
"Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (2001) argues that the business policies of the imperial European landlords, merchants and bureaucrats in the face of El Niño drought intensified these famines and thereby caused millions of deaths. If true, this accusation could easily create a moral equivalence between these famines and the devastating Communist famines of the 20th Century, but so far, Davis is the only major authority I found who tackles this question.
 
Estimated death tolls:
 
1876-79 Famine:
 
India:
 
est. by Digby: 10.3 M,
 
est. by Maharatna: 8.2 M
 
est. by Seavoy: 6.1 M
 
China
 
Broomhall: 20 M
 
Bohr: 9.5-13 M
 
Brazil:
 
0.5-1.0 M (Cunniff)
 
1896-1900 Famine
 
India
 
The Lancet: 19.0 M
 
Maharatna: 8.4 M
 
Seavoy: 8.4 M
 
Cambridge: 6.1 M
 
China: 10 M (Cohen)
 
Brazil: 1.0-1.5 M (Smith)
 
TOTAL: 31,700,000 to 61,300,000 (midpoint: 46.5M)"<ref>{{Cite web|title = Nineteenth Century Death
 
Tolls|url = http://necrometrics.com/wars19c.htm#Nino|website = necrometrics.com|accessdate = 2015-08-31}}</ref>
 
 
===Congo===
 
 
Deaths: 10 million.
 
 
The Guardian & Spiegel.de:
 
 
{{Quote|10 million Congolese were either murdered or worked to death by Leopold's private army, that women were systematically raped, that people's hands were cut off and that the local populace endured kidnapping, looting and village burnings, have never been the subject of serious debate in Belgium, let alone brought an apology... When it was published in Belgium in 1999 it outraged the country's historians but failed to bring about a genuine period of reflection. Controversially, Hochschild compared the death toll in the Belgian-administered Congo to the Holocaust and Stalin's purges."<ref>{{Cite web|title = Belgium confronts its colonial demons|url = http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/jul/18/congo.andrewosborn|website = the Guardian|accessdate = 2015-08-31}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|title = Death Toll Debate: How Many Died in the Bombing of Dresden?|url = http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/death-toll-debate-how-many-died-in-the-bombing-of-dresden-a-581992.html|newspaper = Spiegel Online|date = 2008-10-02|access-date = 2015-08-31|first = Frederick|last = Taylor}}</ref>}}
 
 
=== Genocide of Indigenous Americans ===
 
{{See also|Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
 
 
The median scholarly estimate of Native American lives prior to European colonization is 50 million; the total native population declined to its all-time low of 1.8 million.<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NPoAQRgkrOcC&pg=PA40&dq=pre-Columbian+population+million&cd=6#v=onepage&q=pre-Columbian%20population%20million&f=false |title=American colonies; Volume 1 of The Penguin history of the United States, History of the United States Series |author=Alan Taylor |publisher=[[Penguin Books|Penguin]] |year=2002 |ISBN=9780142002100 |page=40 |deadurl=no |accessdate=7 October 2013}}</ref>
 
 
[[David Stannard]] argued that the destruction of the American aboriginals from 76 million down to a quarter-million over 4 centuries, in a "string of genocide campaigns", killing "countless tens of millions", was the most massive genocide in world history.{{sfn|Stannard|1993|pp=146–7}}
 
 
=== Killings of Indigenous central Americans ===
 
 
Deaths: 40 million according to Bartolome de las Cases.
 
 
{{Quote|The main period of Spanish conquest of the Astec, Maya and Inca civilisations and the escalation of the demographic collapse of indigenous society...  The celebrated friar Bartolome de las Cases estimates that by now up to 40 million indigenous people may have died."<ref>{{Cite book|title = Politics Latin America|url = https://books.google.com/books?id=Y7mOAwAAQBAJ|publisher = Routledge|date = 2014-05-12|isbn = 9781317861942|language = en|first = Gavin|last = O'Toole}}</ref>}}
 
 
===Britain's Irish Potato Famine:===
 
 
Deaths: about 1 million
 
 
{{Quote|In adhering to laissez-faire, the British government also did not interfere with the English-controlled export business in Irish-grown grains. Throughout the Famine years, large quantities of native-grown wheat, barley, oats and oatmeal sailed out of places such as Limerick and Waterford for England, even though local Irish were dying of starvation. Irish farmers, desperate for cash, routinely sold the grain to the British in order to pay the rent on their farms and thus avoid eviction."<ref>{{Cite web|title = The History Place - Irish Potato Famine: The Blight Begins|url = http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/begins.htm|website = www.historyplace.com|accessdate = 2015-08-31}}</ref>}}
 
 
===[[Killing Fields|United States funding of the Khmer Rouge]] ===
 
 
Deaths: 3 million.
 
 
{{Quote|Cambodia's suffering could have stopped when the Vietnamese finally responded to years of Khmer Rouge attacks across their border and liberated the country in January 1979. But almost immediately the United States began secretly backing Pol Pot"|source = globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/190/39190.html|sign = [[The Nation]]}}       
 
 
Henry Kissinger: 
 
 
{{Quote|You should also tell the Cambodians that we will be friends with them. They are murderous thugs, but we won't let that stand in our way. We are prepared to improve relations with them.|source = yale.edu/cgp/us.html}}
 
 
One of the top leaders of the Khmer Rogue:
 
 
{{Quote|We are not communists... we are revolutionaries' who do not 'belong to the commonly accepted grouping of communist Indochina.|source = Leng Sary, 1977, quoted by Vickery, Cambodia: 1978-1983, p. 288}}
 
  
 
==Battles in the Black Chattelization Wars==
 
==Battles in the Black Chattelization Wars==

Revision as of 04:08, 1 September 2015

Enslaved child in Zanzibar, c. 1890. The child is chained to the heavy piece of lumber to restict her movement.
Europeans scramble to get a piece of the resources of Afrika.

The Black Chattelization Wars refer to the long series of aggressions forced on Afrikan Peoples initiated by different groups of Arabs and Europeans. From the fall of Roman controled KMT, through the subsequent foreign invasions, on to the European theatres of the war, many times, dehumanization and chattelization went hand in hand with these military conflicts. Throughout these wars, it's estimated that hundreds of millions of Afrikans were killed, and equally, hundreds of millions were enslaved.


Terminology

Chinweizu


Henry Louis Gates

The term Black Chattelization Wars was coined by Pan-Africanist scholar Chinweizu in an article he wrote in response to Henry Louis Gates's article, Ending the Slavery Blame-Game. Gates argues that, in regards to the global enslavement of Afrikan people, the culpability of Afrikans is usually ignored, placing most of the blame squarely in the hands of European people. In his article, he states that in analysis of the history of Enslavement,

Chinweizu argues in his article, What Slave Trade?, that essentially in every conflict, there have been those who helped aggressors to conquer the lands of their peoples. He also cites the trade of people in modern times, as well Chinese people in the 19th century, known to Europeans as "coolies" at the time

Another example he cites are Jewish men and women who collaborated with the Nazis. The Jüdische Ordnungsdienst, as the Jewish police in the ghettos were called, furnished thousands of men for seizure operations. In the Warsaw ghetto alone the Jewish police numbered approximately 2500; in Lodz they were about 1200 men strong; the Lvov ghetto had an Ordnungsdienst of 500 men; and so on." [1]

Chinweizu ends his article saying

The term Black Chattelizaton Wars more fully encompasses what the the age of enslavement suffered by Black people.

Arab Theatre (680ce - Present)

Arabo-Afrikan Chattelization Wars
Part of Black Chattelization Wars
Monument to chattelization in Zanzibar.jpg
A slave auction was held near this location in Zanzibar for many years. This is an image of a sculpture, Memory for the Slaves by Clara Sörnäs, concrete, 1998.
Date 639 (639)
Location Arab Conquest of North Afrika, Muslim Conquest of Sahel Region, ArabConquest of East Afrika
Result Islamization of North and parts of East Afrika

Africa was opened up to Arab traders shortly after Arab warriors were able to capture north East Afrika from the Romans, who had been ruling for over 600 years. In a very short period, in the Muslim armies swept over present day Egypt and Libya, and were able to secure bases from which they would be able to take over the rest of the continent. By 711 AD North Afrika was effectively under the control of Arabs. At the same time, Arabs were going south and warring with Afrikans in Eastern, Central and Southern Afrika.

Modern Arabo-Afrikan wars

The Arab wars of Afrikan Chattelization have continued well into the 21th Century. Chattelization, and Afrikan genocide is openely practiced in places like Sudan and Mauritania.

Use of Islam in the war

Afrikan people were obtained through conquest, tribute from vassal states (in the first such treaty, Nubia was required to provide hundreds of male and females to be enslaved), offspring (children of slaves were also slaves, but since many slaves were castrated this was not as common), and purchase. The latter method provided the majority of slaves, and at the borders of the Islamic Empire vast number of new slaves were castrated ready for sale (Islamic law did not allow mutilation of slaves, so it was done before they crossed the border).

Afrikans were transported to the Islamic empire across the Sahara to Morocco and Tunisia from West Afrika, from Chad to Libya, along the Nile from East Afrika, and up the coast of East Afrika to the Persian Gulf. This trade had been well entrenched for over 600 years before Europeans arrived, and had driven the rapid expansion of Islam across North Africa.

European Theatre

The European Theatre of Chattelization Wars took place across the Afrikan continent from the 1400's through to the 1800's. The vast majority of Afrikans transported to the New World were captured from the central and western parts of the continent. The numbers were so great that Africans who came by way of the European slave trade became the most numerous Old-World immigrants in both North and South America before the late eighteenth century.[2] The South Atlantic economic system centered on making goods and clothing to sell in Europe and increasing the numbers of enslaved Afrikans brought to the New World. This system was crucial to European countries which, in the late 1300's were on the verge of collapsing under the weight of Islamic wars and plagues.

Early

The Portuguese were the first to engage in the European slave trade, and others soon followed. Afrikans were considered chattel cargo by the ship owners, to be transported to the Americas as quickly and cheaply as possible,[3] there to be sold to labor in coffee, tobacco, cocoa, cotton and sugar plantations, gold and silver mines, rice fields, construction industry, cutting timber for ships, and as house servants.

The European traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch, and the Americans. Current estimates are that more than 80 million were captured 1/3 of whichsurviving to be shipped across the Atlantic,[4] although the actual number purchased by the traders is considerably higher.[5][6][7]

The European theatre of the Black Chattelization war is sometimes called the Maafa by African and African-American scholars, meaning "holocaust" or "great disaster" in Swahili. Some scholars, such as Marimba Ani and Maulana Karenga use the terms African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement. Enslavement was one element of a three-part economic cycle—the triangular trade and its Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and millions of people.[8]

Post-Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference was a meeting Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Black Chattelization Wars in regards to the West and Central Afrikan sections of the war. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of Afrikan autonomy and self-governance. Previously, Europeans dealt with kingdoms on the continent of Afrika from bases and fortresses on coast. After, the the General Act was ratified, most European nations worked to move into the continent.

Modern Euro-Afrikan relations

After the Second World War people in Afrika wanted change. Only Egypt, Liberia and Ethiopia were independent at that point.

In Southern Afrika, European settlers wanted to cut the ties with Britain and Portugal, but retain white minority rule, excluding the indigenous Afrikan population. The fighting resulting from this was violent and destructive to the infrastructure of the countries involved and their independent neighbours. Burdened by apartheid for decades, South Africans were the last people on the continent to attain majority rule. Meanwhile the Cold War conflict between America and the Soviet Union distorted politics at a regional level particularly in Angola and other southern countries.

Attaining economic independence proved harder than gaining political independence. With being free from colonialism, a new form dubbed neocolonialism by Osagyfo Kwame Nkrumah came into existence.

Today, similar to the Black enslavers in the era of the Chattelization Wars and like the plantation overseers and house niggers of ante-bellum USA, the Black colonialists of today operate within the framework and mandate given them by white supremacy, but they add their own peculiar twists to the master's mandate. The executive anarchism of the Nigerian comprador elite just happens to be, perhaps, the most abominable of these local twists to the basic mandate given by white supremacy to its local black agents. [9]

Use of Christianity in the war

Christianity and the BCW are often closely associated because Catholicism and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers[10] and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers.[11] According to Edward Andrews, Christian missionaries were initially portrayed as "visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery". However, by the time the colonial era drew to a close in the last half of the twentieth century, missionaries became viewed as "ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them",[12] colonialism's "agent, scribe and moral alibi."[13]

Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists.[14] For example, Toyin Falola asserts that there were some missionaries who believed that "the agenda of colonialism in Africa was similar to that of Christianity".[15] Falola cites Jan H. Boer of the Sudan United Mission as saying, "Colonialism is a form of imperialism based on a divine mandate and designed to bring liberation - spiritual, cultural, economic and political - by sharing the blessings of the Christ-inspired civilization of the West with a people suffering under satanic oppression, ignorance and disease, effected by a combination of political, economic and religious forces that cooperate under a regime seeking the benefit of both ruler and ruled."[15]

Edward Andrews writes:

Historians have traditionally looked at Christian missionaries in one of two ways. The first church historians to catalogue missionary history provided hagiographic descriptions of their trials, successes, and sometimes even martyrdom. Missionaries were thus visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery. However, by the middle of the twentieth century, an era marked by civil rights movements, anti-colonialism, and growing secularization, missionaries were viewed quite differently. Instead of godly martyrs, historians now described missionaries as arrogant and rapacious imperialists. Christianity became not a saving grace but a monolithic and aggressive force that missionaries imposed upon defiant natives. Indeed, missionaries were now understood as important agents in the ever-expanding nation-state, or "ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them."[citation needed]

According to Jake Meador, "some Christians have tried to make sense of post-colonial Christianity by renouncing practically everything about the Christianity of the colonizers. They reason that if the colonialists’ understanding of Christianity could be used to justify rape, murder, theft, and empire then their understanding of Christianity is completely wrong. "[16]

According to Lamin Sanneh, "(m)uch of the standard Western scholarship on Christian missions proceeds by looking at the motives of individual missionaries and concludes by faulting the entire missionary enterprise as being part of the machinery of Western cultural imperialism." As an alternative to this view, Sanneh presents a different perspective arguing that "missions in the modern era has been far more, and far less, than the argument about motives customarily portrays."[17]

Michael Wood asserts that the indigenous peoples were not considered to be human beings and that the colonisers was shaped by "centuries of Ethnocentrism, and Christian monotheism, which espoused one truth, one time and version of reality."[18]

Battles in the Black Chattelization Wars

Many different groups participated in the wars in different periods of history. Being that the subject is so vast, below are a few noteworthy encounters.

Aggressions from Asians

Aggressions from Europeans

From the fall of the Moorish Empire (1491) to present

Proxy internal wars

sources

  1. Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1961, p. 310
  2. Curtin, Philip (1969). The Atlantic Slave Trade. The University Of Wisconsin Press. pp. 1–58.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mannix 1962 Introduction-1–5
  4. John Henrik Clarke, Slave Trade and Slavery (New York: Holt McDougal, 1970), ISBN 9780030841545 , p. 12. "The slave trade prospered, and Africans continued to be poured into the New World. Figures on the subject vary, but it has been estimated that during the years of the African slave trade, Africa lost from 60 to 100 Million people."
  5. Eltis, David and Richardson, David. The Numbers Game. In: Northrup, David: The Atlantic Slave Trade, 2nd edition, Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002. p. 95.
  6. Basil Davidson. The African Slave Trade.
  7. "African Holocaust How Many". African Holocaust Society. Retrieved 2007-01-04. While traditional studies often focus on official French and British records of how many Africans arrived in the New World, these studies neglect to include the death from raids, the fatalities on board the ships, deaths caused by European diseases, the victims from the consequences of enslavement, and trauma of refugees displaced by slaving activities. The number of arrivals also neglects the volume of Africans who arrived via pirates, who for obvious reasons, wouldn't have kept records.
  8. "African Holocaust Special". African Holocaust Society. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  9. http://www.nathanielturner.com/nigeriaandwhitesupremacy.htm
  10. Melvin E. Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg (2003). Colonialism: an international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 496. Of all religions, Christianity has been most associated with colonialism because several of its forms (Catholicism and Protestantism) were the religions of the European powers engaged in colonial enterprise on a global scale.
  11. Bevans, Steven. "Christian Complicity in Colonialism/ Globalism" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-17. The modern missionary era was in many ways the ‘religious arm’ of colonialism, whether Portuguese and Spanish colonialism in the sixteenth Century, or British, French, German, Belgian or American colonialism in the nineteenth. This was not all bad — oftentimes missionaries were heroic defenders of the rights of indigenous peoples
  12. Andrews, Edward (2010). "Christian Missions and Colonial Empires Reconsidered: A Black Evangelist in West Africa, 1766–1816". Journal of Church & State. 51 (4): 663–691. doi:10.1093/jcs/csp090. Historians have traditionally looked at Christian missionaries in one of two ways. The first church historians to catalogue missionary history provided hagiographic descriptions of their trials, successes, and sometimes even martyrdom. Missionaries were thus visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery. However, by the middle of the twentieth century, an era marked by civil rights movements, anti-colonialism, and growing secularization, missionaries were viewed quite differently. Instead of godly martyrs, historians now described missionaries as arrogant and rapacious imperialists. Christianity became not a saving grace but a monolithic and aggressive force that missionaries imposed upon defiant natives. Indeed, missionaries were now understood as important agents in the ever-expanding nation-state, or "ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them.
  13. Comaroff, Jean; Comaroff, John (2010) [1997]. "Africa Observed: Discourses of the Imperial Imagination". In Grinker, Roy R.; Lubkemann, Stephen C.; Steiner, Christopher B. (eds.). Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History and Representation (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 32.
  14. Meador, Jake. "Cosmetic Christianity and the Problem of Colonialism – Responding to Brian McLaren". Retrieved 2010-11-17. According to Jake Meador, "some Christians have tried to make sense of post-colonial Christianity by renouncing practically everything about the Christianity of the colonizers. They reason that if the colonialists’ understanding of Christianity could be used to justify rape, murder, theft, and empire then their understanding of Christianity is completely wrong.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Falola, Toyin (2001). Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies. University Rochester Press. p. 33.
  16. Meador, Jake. "Cosmetic Christianity and the Problem of Colonialism – Responding to Brian McLaren". Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  17. Sanneth, Lamin (April 8, 1987). "Christian Missions and the Western Guilt Complex". The Christian Century. The Christian Century Foundation: 331–334. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
  18. Conquistadors, Michael Wood, p. 20, BBC Publications, 2000